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2017/1 (No.5)

The 7th Chinese Academic Forum of Industrial Heritage held in Tongji University between 19 and 21 November 2016 is a significant event in the area of cultural heritage conservation in China. Thanks
Special Focus
001 Key Step to Enliven Industrial Heritage: An Analysis of the Main Points in Interpreting Industrial HeritageAbstract: The interpretation of cultural heritage is the key step to enliven it, and this rule applies to industrial heritage as well. The article starts from basic values of industrial heritage, and gives special analysis to potential controversies in revealing the social values of industrial heritage because of their modern historical backgrounds. Besides, other related problems in the interpretation of industrial heritage and the basic framework that should be followed in China are also discussed. At last, the significance of the interpretation of industrial heritage is concluded from the viewpoints of the overall positioning of cultural heritage in contemporary society and the role played by industrial heritage.

Key words: industrial heritage; interpretation; social value; heritage series
Guo Zhan
008 The Confusion and Re-understanding of Industrial Heritage Abstract: Since the year 2006 when Wuxi Proposal was released, the research and conservation of industrial heritage in China has gone through 10 years and has achieved great accomplishments. Yet there are still a lot of confusions in this field, calling for a reconsideration of the values of industrial heritage. Started from the definition of industrial heritage, this article provides a comprehensive discussion concerning the issues such as names, types, forms, histories as well as the scientific and social values, to deepen the understanding of the values of industrial heritage. The article intends to achieve a more accurate recognition of the values of industrial heritage, which is favourable for a further development of the research and conservation in the future.

Key words: industrial heritage; confusion; re-understanding
Liu Boying
Theory and History
018 From Technological Spectacle to Industrial Heritage: TheEvolving Conceptualisation of the Mechanical Age through Museum PracticeAbstract: The industrial museum is widely considered as one important model to preserve and present the industrial culture, while the practices and theory of museums have enriched the understanding of industrial heritage. The attitudes towards industrial culture had been transformed gradually in France, England and Germany before the term ‘industrial archaeology’ was put forward in the 1950s. This conceptual evolution was rooted in the appreciation of ‘progress’ and ‘spectacular’, the cult of science and technology, the history making of industries, and the demand of regional cultural identity. Through a review of the history of industrial museums, this paper argues that this new type of museums has been a crucial media for the better understanding of the values of the Mechanical Age and promoted the heritage making of industrial remains primarily through a shift of settings of the artefacts. The paper further points out that with various thematic curation and collections, the museum practice has pushed forward the formation of the concept and theory of industrial heritage as well.

Key words: collection; science and technology museum; technology monument; heritage making
Dong Yiping, Hou Binchao
028 The Giant that Drove the Rise of American Industrial Buildings: A Preliminary Study of Albert KahnAbstract: During the period of Industrial Revolution in the early 20th century, industrial building gradually took to the stage of history. With the unique ideas and skills of design, Albert Kahn established the precedent of the design of industrial architecture. Kahn’s contribution to the design of modern factory has been widely recognised. Moreover, known as the ‘father of modern factory design’, he was regarded as the pioneer of industrial building design and planning in America. Not only did the rise of modern industrial production demonstrate the success of Kahn, but also he contributed to this process. Based on this historical background and from the perspective of the Industrial Revolution and architectural practice, this paper takes the work of Albert Kahn in the United States and the Soviet Union as examples to study the influence of Albert Kahn on industrial architecture and modern architecture all over the world.

Key words: Albert Kahn; industrial building; Industrial Revolution; motor plant; architecture practice
Wei La, Liu Boying
042 Test Planning and Its Application in the Redevelopment of Industrial DistrictAbstract: As key aspects of inventory planning, redevelopment of industrial districts should fulfil multiple targets. In comparison to the traditional planning process, test planning, as a new method, is capable of producing comprehensive strategies within the limited time span and finite funding under ambiguous situations. Through analysing the origin and scope of applications of the informal planning instrument in the German–speaking region of Europe, the seven main elements of test planning is summarised. Moreover, a comparison between competition and test planning procedure is made to illustrate the advantages of the latter in solving complex problems. At last, through a case study of the application of test planning in intermediate and macro-scale redevelopment programmes of industrial districts, the possibilities of its application and function of test and exploration are revealed.

Key words: test planning; informal planning instrument; redevelopment of industrial district
Sun Delong
Heritage Illustration
054 WARFIELD COLUMN V Architectural Essence in Ruin and Decay James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi
Project Analysis
069 From Loft to Community: Study on Characteristics of Residential Regeneration of ‘Downtown Factory’ in Shanghai Central City Abstract: With the promotion of industry and stock planning, a large number of ‘Downtown Factory’ in the central city of Shanghai are in need of regeneration. After the three phases of ‘bulldozer–style demolition’, ‘creative industrial park’ and ‘waterfront new town’, the mixed residential function is becoming a new trend in the transformation of ‘Downtown Factory’. In this paper, 20 projects are included in the case study, and are divided into five stages: worker dormitory, loft studio, low–rent housing, affordable housing, and community. Through the research of the residential regeneration strategies, the paper sums up six characteristics: fuzzy legal boundary, cautious administrative promotion, price polarisation, messy & dull cityscape, small & monotonous scale, and spatial convergence. Furthermore, this paper puts forward community development as the inevitable trend of the regeneration of ‘Downtown Factory’. By choosing successful international cases for comparative study, it sorts out the feasible methods in Shanghai. Finally, the paper points out the barriers to the residential regeneration of ‘Downtown Factory’ in Shanghai central city, and puts forward strategies as references and inspirations for the widespread implementation of the residential regeneration mode of ‘Downtown Factory’.

Key words: Downtown Factory; Shanghai central city; residence–oriented; urban regeneration; characteristic
Sun Miao, Li Zhenyu
078 From Value Assessment to Heritage Qualification: The Negotiating and Battling Process in Guangzhou’s Industrial Heritage ConservationAbstract: In the process of industrial heritage conservation, there has been a confusion between value assessment and heritage qualification for a long time. Lacking effective consultation system, opinions from diverse stakeholders are often neglected in the listing process. This article distinguishes value assessment and heritage qualification, and learns from the advanced experiences in Hong Kong where value assessment and heritage qualification are separated. The article emphatically focuses on the practice of industrial heritage conservation in Guangzhou, illustrating the listing procedure, comparing the participants of negotiation, the timing of intervention, and the modality and effect of consultation in four cases. It also discusses the particularity of industrial heritage, difficulties in identifying interest bodies and effectiveness of the consultation mechanism. The article draws the conclusion and gives suggestions on establishing a multi-body consultation system in the process of industrial heritage conservation.

Key words: industrial heritage, value assessment, heritage qualification, consultation system
Long Xiao, Liu Hui, Wang Xiaoyu
087 The Last ‘L-shaped’ Maintenance Workshop of China Eastern Railway: Investigation and Restoration of J10 Building in Gongzhuling Russian–style Building GroupAbstract: This paper introduces the on-going restoration scheme of the J10 Building in Gongzhuling Russian–style Building Group. Through the study of the history of J10 building, investigation of its current situation, selection of the materials for restoration and making of the restoration scheme, the paper discusses the ways to interpret the principle of the original form of historic relics and realise the minimum intervention of cultural heritage.

Key words: China Eastern Railway; Gongzhuling Russian–style Building Group; maintenance workshop; investigation; restoration
Wang Chao, Feng Tiehong
094 The Transfer of Soviet Building Codes in the Early Days of New China: A Case Study of the Original Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building in the Campus of Tongji UniversityAbstract: The paper focuses on the introduction, use and development of the technology of double–curvature brick vault from Soviet after 1949. It has a detailed research of the original design archives and current situation of Tongji University electrician pavilion. It also studies Shanghai, Qingtongxia of Ningxia and other remnants, pointing out that the brick double curvature vault is a Chinese empirical transfer based on the Soviet Union building codes under the principle of frugality and save ‘three materials’. Compared with its peers, the mechanical and electrical engineering building of Tongji University manifests a high–quality design, which is a special industrial heritage of ‘Soviet Style’ structure along with Jiangnan characters.

Key words: Original Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building of Tongji University; double–curvature brick vault; Soviet building codes; industrial heritage
Zhu Xiaoming, Zhu Donghai
106 Building Mode Survey and Enviromental–adaptability Analysis of Hoffmann Kiln in ChinaAbstract: The research of industrial buildings has been mainly focused on space and form while their value in terms of environmental adaptability is usually ignored. In effect, the designers and producers’ applications of local materials and technology are flexible under different topography and climate conditions, leading to the various processes of localisation of certain building type. Based on the extensive field surveys and studies, this paper attempts to investigate the environmental adaptability of the building mode of the Hoffmann kilns in China.

Key words: Hoffmann kiln; environmental adaptability; building mode
Yu Changjiang, Qian Kun, Li Haiqing
114 News in Brief  


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The 7th Chinese Academic Forum of Industrial Heritage held in Tongji University between 19 and 21 November 2016 is a significant event in the area of cultural heritage conservation in China. Thanks to the hard academic work and selfless dedication of the members of the Industrial Architecture Heritage Academic Committee (IAHAC) of the Architectural Society of China (ASC), Heritage Architecture enjoys the unique opportunity to produce a special issue for this Forum. This issue is based on the contents of 10 carefully selected conference papers and presents multiple aspects of industrial heritage conservation including the review of concepts, theories of history, value evaluation, methods in management, typological analysis, forms and structures, conservation and activation, etc. Given that Liu Boying, the Vice–chairman of IAHAC, provides an exhaustive commentary of the core contents in the introduction, this editorial only aims to 
share three reflections on the Forum:
Firstly, when referring to the present time of industry 4.0, we characterise by numbers the different stages in the progress of global material civilisation over the last 200 years. These stages have produced a variety of industrial heritages whose recognition, as industrialisation itself, are still under progress. Therefore, the whole world is currently thinking and exploring ways to manage and reuse this heritage, and China constitutes no exception.
Secondly, China has retained a large number of modern industrial heritages since the middle and late 19th century, bearing the imprint of industrial civilisation. This contains the dreams, struggles and memories for a strong country and the well-being of its people from many generations. Now, these industrial heritages are facing the challenges of asset preservation, mass transformation and activated regeneration. This also provides a chance to make eternal what is already devoid of life, turning industrial heritage into a vital driving force for urban development.
Thirdly, the cultural heritage preservation sphere in China is composed of experts and professionals from the fields of architecture, planning, engineering, material science, heritage and museology, who have produced great achievements in industrial heritage preservation and regeneration, approaching and catching up with a world–class level. Moreover, the systematic research and practise of promoting industrial heritage have moved towards higher professional standards since the establishment of IAHAC. It is my belief that this special issue of Heritage Architecture will also contribute to this important aim. (translated by Gu Xinyi and Plácido González Martínez)