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2018/2 (No.10)

本期《研究聚焦》栏目中,徐怡涛着重探讨了作为建筑遗产保护根基的建筑考古学问题。建筑考古学是建筑史学与考古学两大学科的交叉领域,在此领域,老一代学者杨鸿勋曾致力于考古遗址的建筑复原工作,徐怡涛则用基于考古类型学的研究方法,在相关地区的建筑形制分期研究基础上,通过解析待鉴定建筑的原构和非原构形制,框定其始建年代区间和各次修缮年代区间,揭示建筑的层累关系。这种精确断代方法已经获得了很多成果,在未来也有进
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001 Architectural Archaeology as the Academic Foundation of Built Heritage ConservationAbstract: Through an analysis of the essence of architectural heritage, this paper argues that the key to architectural heritage conservation is the accurate judgement of historical value and that the basic academic tool in judging historical value is architectural archaeology. The paper defines architectural archaeology and its main research tasks, and analyses the relationship between architectural archaeology, archaeology and architectural history from the perspective of their research objects and subject goals. The paper also introduces the development of architectural archaeology in the Cultural Relics and Architecture Department in the School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, and introduces the research and practice of architectural archaeology by taking the main hall of the Jiwang Temple in Wanrong, Shanxi, and the main hall of the Yaowang Temple in Changzi, Shanxi, as examples. In addition, the paper demonstrates the level of precision that dating by form typology in architectural archaeology can achieve; the great changes that may be revealed in heritage architecture’s historical value, research value and value as historical materials; and the research potential that can be derived from these changes.

Keywords: architectural archaeology; architectural history; heritage conservation
Xu Yitao
007 The Survival of Kyoto’s Cultural Heritage during World War II: An InvestigationAbstract: The ancient city of Kyoto is one of the best preserved historic cities in East Asia, and a treasure house of Japanese art and architecture. The city’s fine state of preservation is often attributed to its miraculous escape from US air raids during World War II, and various explanations have been advanced in the United States, Japan and China for this escape. Through research on primary historical documents and reviews of postwar historiography, this paper investigates the ‘strategic preservation’ of Kyoto towards the end of World War II, with a focus on how Kyoto was transformed from a military target to a cultural target of the United States. It also examines the documents on Japanese cultural properties, and historic monuments produced during the war by the Roberts Commission and considers their influence on military operations. In addition, the paper discusses the origin of the ‘Warner Legend’ and argues that the ‘strategic preservation’ of Kyoto during the war played an important role in postwar international politics.

Keywords: Kyoto; World War II; strategic preservation; Henry Stimson; Langdon Warner
Zuo Lala
Theory and History
014 Yurts in Palaces of the Qing Dynasty: A Study on the Architectural Form of Mongolian Yurts at Hanjingtang in the Old Summer Palace, BeijingAbstract: The yurt of the Qing court was a unique type of architecture during the Qing Dynasty: it was significant in the history of yurts and became the most highly developed form of yurt. Mongolian yurts were primarily constructed in the imperial palaces in Beijing and Jehol. This study examines the type known as plum blossom–style yurts as well as two other yurt types constructed in the southern square of Hanjingtang in the Old Summer Palace during the Qianlong period (1736–1796). In this way, the study aims to fill the gap in the research concerning Qing-Dynasty Mongolian yurts.

Keywords: Old Summer Palace; Hanjingtang; relic sites of yurts; plum blossom–style yurt; canopied yurt; square yurt
Erdemt, Zhang Pengju, Bai Liyan, Jalganbayar
020 Interpretation of Patterns and Styles of Architectural Trim Work in the Handicraft Regulations for the Qing-Dynasty PalacesAbstract: Architectural trim work was an important part of architectural function and aesthetics in the Qing-Dynasty palaces, for which the imperial jiangzuo zeli (handicraft precedents and regulations) provide regulations and precedents from a construction viewpoint and include rich details of patterns and styles for individual architectural components. By analysing the contents related to architectural trim work in Qing-Dynasty jiangzuo zeli, this article aims to interpret the craftwork that mainly involves wooden members of interior fixtures, analysing the constructional characteristics of the patterns and styles employed in architectural trim work, and underlining the value of jiangzuo zeli in studying the architectural constructions of the palaces.

Keywords: patterns and styles; architectural trim work; handicraft precedents and regulations (jiangzuo zeli), Qing-Dynasty palaces
Wang Huan
027 Survey Report about the Interior Decoration of the Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City, BeijingAbstract: Jingfu Palace is located along the east axis of the Ningshou Palace complex in the Forbidden City. The palace has a gable-and-hip roof with three round ridges and is surrounded by corridors. Its interior decoration is well preserved, and it basically reflects the late-Qing-Dynasty style. In May 2015, as a commission from the Palace Museum, the School of Architecture of Tianjin University conducted a comprehensive survey of Jingfu Palace. In the survey, the size, form, construction methods, and remains of the interior decoration were recorded in detail. This paper evaluates the results of that survey and examines the interior decoration through three aspects: interior decorative partitions, inscribed boards, and metal components. The paper also makes a preliminary speculation regarding the style of part of the interior decoration during the mid-Qing Dynasty (Qianlong period, 1736–1796), which is combined with information from historical archives and site investigations. It is hoped that this research can provide reliable basic information for studies in related fields.

Keywords: Forbidden City; Jingfu Palace; interior decoration; interior decorative partitions; inscribed boards; metal components
Rong Xing, He Beijie, Zhuang Lixin
Heritage Illustration
038 WARFIELD COLUMN X The Wall: Strength and Power in Fundamental Architecture James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi
Project Analysis
053 Lessons from the Post-earthquake Restoration Process for the San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo, SicilyAbstract: Seismic protection is an important focus in the conservation of historic architecture in Italy. Here, the case of San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo in southwestern Sicily, Italy, was explored based on project archives and interviews with restoration engineers. The research focuses included cultural transitions in anti-seismic restoration and the development and influence of anti-seismic legislation and technologies. Changes in financial policies covering post-earthquake restoration were also reviewed to shed light on restoration strategies under financial constraints.

Keywords: Italy; earthquake; anti-seismic restoration; cultural heritage; San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo
Pan Yiting
063 Space Regeneration of the Polder Cultural Landscape in the Wanjiang Basin: A Case Study of the New Town Planning for Hangbu in Shucheng County, Anhui ProvinceAbstract: Polder is an important form of land utilisation for agricultural production along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province and provides a typical cultural landscape for residents’ interactions with their environment. Polders, farmlands, dams and the river network comprise a geographical system. The inclusion of local residents and their livestocks in this system form a socio-ecological system, which includes the distinctive regional characteristics of local landscape and played a significant socio-economic role in history. This paper studies the new town planning for the town of Hangbu in Shucheng County, Anhui Province and extracts the spatial patterns and the characteristic value of these polders. This study fully realises the flexible spatio-temporal deployment of water resources, efficient land use, and the significance of intergrowth between community groups and polders in the construction of the new town of Hangbu through the regeneration of the spatial structure, patterns and elements of the heritage of the polder cultural landscape. Thus, an anti-flood ecological safety pattern could be designed and constructed for a modern city with vital urban living spaces. The characteristic polder landscape should be renewed so that ‘ancient polders can serve the present’ and the landscape could function better in the development and construction of a modern city.

Keywords: polder; cultural landscape; heritage value; space regeneration
Zhang Lin, Dai Daixin
070 Practices and Reflections on Residents’ Participation in Heritage Conservation: A Case Study of Courtyard Reorganisation in Dashilar, BeijingAbstract: The participation of residents remaining in their original homes in heritage conservation, especially in living heritage conservation, has gradually become a dominant trend since 2010 for both the academia and policy-makers. Taking the typical historic residential neighbourhood of Dashilar as an example, this study explores the practical difficulties of the participatory conservation policy. In this case, two participatory conservation models: the one initiated by the residents, and one facilitated by the government through application to public funds, failed to achieve courtyard reorganisation. During our research process, we noticed the residents’ spatial behaviour, such as spatial demarcation to protect privacy and other interests, tense neighbourhood relations, loss of courtyard interaction, the neighbourhood committee’s actions were driven by concerns for their reputation and accomplishments, insufficient resources and capabilities for community governance, as well as the problem of distrust among other residents. This case shows that residents’ participation in heritage conservation is not merely a matter of material space, but a systematic social project that faces challenges posed by space, cognition, organisation and institutions. The solution to these problems is an effective promotion of public participation in heritage conservation.

Keywords: historic neighbourhood; courtyard reorganisation; local residents; participatory conservation
Li Alin
078 Non-destructive and Micro-destructive Testing Technology for Status Monitoring of Song Dynasty Wooden Columns in the Main Hall of Baoguo Temple, NingboAbstract: Effective monitoring of wooden architectures is necessary for maintenance and repair planning. Microwave detection, ultrasonic detection and impedance testing, which are nondestructive testing (NDT) and micro-destructive testing (MDT) technologies, are used for on-site surveying and inspection of the Song Dynasty wooden columns in the main hall of Baoguo Temple to compare their feasibilities. On the one hand, the health of the remaining wooden columns is tested. On the other hand, the reliability of these NDT and MDT technologies is studied to provide a basis for future continuous monitoring. Internal semi-quantitative evaluation of wooden columns is performed by analysing the ultrasonic wave velocity and cross-sections of the internal decay inside the columns, which compensates for the failure of traditional qualitative technologies to reach required precisions. Additionally, the test results are used as monitoring records and form a basis for preventive conservation of the Song Dynasty wooden columns in the main hall of Baoguo Temple. Moisture is the main cause of the decay of the wooden columns. Microwave technology can be used to locate the moisture source in the columns by testing the water content at different depths. This provides data to aid in taking effective measures to avoid excessive moisture in the wood. Finally, the characteristics of the NDT and MDT monitoring technologies are introduced to provide a reference for future monitoring of wooden heritage sites.

Keywords: main hall of Baoguo Temple; non-destructive testing; micro-destructive testing; microwave detection; ultrasonic detection; resistograph testing
Chen Lin, Fu Yinghong, Ju Faling, Dai Shibing
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本期《研究聚焦》栏目中,徐怡涛着重探讨了作为建筑遗产保护根基的建筑考古学问题。建筑考古学是建筑史学与考古学两大学科的交叉领域,在此领域,老一代学者杨鸿勋曾致力于考古遗址的建筑复原工作,徐怡涛则用基于考古类型学的研究方法,在相关地区的建筑形制分期研究基础上,通过解析待鉴定建筑的原构和非原构形制,框定其始建年代区间和各次修缮年代区间,揭示建筑的层累关系。这种精确断代方法已经获得了很多成果,在未来也有进一步推广和扩展的潜力。
《研究聚焦》栏目的另一篇文章关注今天被列入世界遗产名录的日本京都古城如何在二战中幸存的问题。左拉拉通过查阅美国政府和军事部门的档案,揭示了美国最终选择保存京都古城的决策过程,并考证了一些传言产生的背景和来龙去脉。
本期《理论与历史》栏目关注清代宫苑建筑。清代宫苑建筑不仅至今有很多实物存留,更重要的是留下了关于其建造决策、营造过程和使用变迁的大量档案记载。额尔德木图等四位作者聚焦于圆明园含经堂前的蒙古包,并试图通过这个问题考察蒙古包建筑在北方草原之外地区的发展演变,以及清代与蒙藏地区的民族和宗教关系对此的影响。王欢详细解读了清代留存的各种宫苑匠作则例中的装修样式。荣幸等三位作者以故宫景福宫为例,详细调查了其现存清末内檐装修的情况,并尝试推测了其在乾隆年间的内檐装修形式。对清代宫苑留存的各种文献材料的深入挖掘是三篇文章的共同特点。
本期《沃菲尔德风土图记》关注世界各地的传统军事防御设施,包括城墙、堡垒等,强调其形式的力量感和作为权力象征的标志性。
在《案例解析》栏目中,潘一婷通过对意大利马扎拉的圣方济各修道院抗震修复工程的解析,关注1980-90年代抗震思想转变,讨论抗震立法和技术变迁对震后历史建筑保护的影响,并涉及到近几十年意大利的经济形势对遗产保护的影响。张琳与戴代新通过安徽省六安市境内的一个新城规划案例,探讨了在新的历史条件下对历史上的皖江流域圩田景观进行空间再生的可能性。李阿琳详细分析了大栅栏地区原住民参与遗产保护的两次失败试验的案例,认为原住民参与遗产保护不是一个单纯的物质空间问题,而是系统性的社会工程,目前面临着空间、认知、组织和制度上的四大困境,这些问题的解决是原住民参与遗产保护在实践上能够有效推进的前提。陈琳等四人的文章讨论了木结构无损与微损检测技术在宁波保国寺这个始建于北宋的千年木构遗产上应用的尝试,可以为今后的木质建筑遗产监测工作提供参考。
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