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2018/2 (No.10)

Special Focus
001 Architectural Archaeology as the Academic Foundation of Built Heritage ConservationAbstract: Through an analysis of the essence of architectural heritage, this paper argues that the key to architectural heritage conservation is the accurate judgement of historical value and that the basic academic tool in judging historical value is architectural archaeology. The paper defines architectural archaeology and its main research tasks, and analyses the relationship between architectural archaeology, archaeology and architectural history from the perspective of their research objects and subject goals. The paper also introduces the development of architectural archaeology in the Cultural Relics and Architecture Department in the School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, and introduces the research and practice of architectural archaeology by taking the main hall of the Jiwang Temple in Wanrong, Shanxi, and the main hall of the Yaowang Temple in Changzi, Shanxi, as examples. In addition, the paper demonstrates the level of precision that dating by form typology in architectural archaeology can achieve; the great changes that may be revealed in heritage architecture’s historical value, research value and value as historical materials; and the research potential that can be derived from these changes.

Keywords: architectural archaeology; architectural history; heritage conservation
Xu Yitao
007 The Survival of Kyoto’s Cultural Heritage during World War II: An InvestigationAbstract: The ancient city of Kyoto is one of the best preserved historic cities in East Asia, and a treasure house of Japanese art and architecture. The city’s fine state of preservation is often attributed to its miraculous escape from US air raids during World War II, and various explanations have been advanced in the United States, Japan and China for this escape. Through research on primary historical documents and reviews of postwar historiography, this paper investigates the ‘strategic preservation’ of Kyoto towards the end of World War II, with a focus on how Kyoto was transformed from a military target to a cultural target of the United States. It also examines the documents on Japanese cultural properties, and historic monuments produced during the war by the Roberts Commission and considers their influence on military operations. In addition, the paper discusses the origin of the ‘Warner Legend’ and argues that the ‘strategic preservation’ of Kyoto during the war played an important role in postwar international politics.

Keywords: Kyoto; World War II; strategic preservation; Henry Stimson; Langdon Warner
Zuo Lala
Theory and History
014 Yurts in Palaces of the Qing Dynasty: A Study on the Architectural Form of Mongolian Yurts at Hanjingtang in the Old Summer Palace, BeijingAbstract: The yurt of the Qing court was a unique type of architecture during the Qing Dynasty: it was significant in the history of yurts and became the most highly developed form of yurt. Mongolian yurts were primarily constructed in the imperial palaces in Beijing and Jehol. This study examines the type known as plum blossom–style yurts as well as two other yurt types constructed in the southern square of Hanjingtang in the Old Summer Palace during the Qianlong period (1736–1796). In this way, the study aims to fill the gap in the research concerning Qing-Dynasty Mongolian yurts.

Keywords: Old Summer Palace; Hanjingtang; relic sites of yurts; plum blossom–style yurt; canopied yurt; square yurt
Erdemt, Zhang Pengju, Bai Liyan, Jalganbayar
020 Interpretation of Patterns and Styles of Architectural Trim Work in the Handicraft Regulations for the Qing-Dynasty PalacesAbstract: Architectural trim work was an important part of architectural function and aesthetics in the Qing-Dynasty palaces, for which the imperial jiangzuo zeli (handicraft precedents and regulations) provide regulations and precedents from a construction viewpoint and include rich details of patterns and styles for individual architectural components. By analysing the contents related to architectural trim work in Qing-Dynasty jiangzuo zeli, this article aims to interpret the craftwork that mainly involves wooden members of interior fixtures, analysing the constructional characteristics of the patterns and styles employed in architectural trim work, and underlining the value of jiangzuo zeli in studying the architectural constructions of the palaces.

Keywords: patterns and styles; architectural trim work; handicraft precedents and regulations (jiangzuo zeli), Qing-Dynasty palaces
Wang Huan
027 Survey Report about the Interior Decoration of the Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City, BeijingAbstract: Jingfu Palace is located along the east axis of the Ningshou Palace complex in the Forbidden City. The palace has a gable-and-hip roof with three round ridges and is surrounded by corridors. Its interior decoration is well preserved, and it basically reflects the late-Qing-Dynasty style. In May 2015, as a commission from the Palace Museum, the School of Architecture of Tianjin University conducted a comprehensive survey of Jingfu Palace. In the survey, the size, form, construction methods, and remains of the interior decoration were recorded in detail. This paper evaluates the results of that survey and examines the interior decoration through three aspects: interior decorative partitions, inscribed boards, and metal components. The paper also makes a preliminary speculation regarding the style of part of the interior decoration during the mid-Qing Dynasty (Qianlong period, 1736–1796), which is combined with information from historical archives and site investigations. It is hoped that this research can provide reliable basic information for studies in related fields.

Keywords: Forbidden City; Jingfu Palace; interior decoration; interior decorative partitions; inscribed boards; metal components
Rong Xing, He Beijie, Zhuang Lixin
Heritage Illustration
038 WARFIELD COLUMN X The Wall: Strength and Power in Fundamental Architecture James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi
Project Analysis
053 Lessons from the Post-earthquake Restoration Process for the San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo, SicilyAbstract: Seismic protection is an important focus in the conservation of historic architecture in Italy. Here, the case of San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo in southwestern Sicily, Italy, was explored based on project archives and interviews with restoration engineers. The research focuses included cultural transitions in anti-seismic restoration and the development and influence of anti-seismic legislation and technologies. Changes in financial policies covering post-earthquake restoration were also reviewed to shed light on restoration strategies under financial constraints.

Keywords: Italy; earthquake; anti-seismic restoration; cultural heritage; San Francesco Convent in Mazara del Vallo
Pan Yiting
063 Space Regeneration of the Polder Cultural Landscape in the Wanjiang Basin: A Case Study of the New Town Planning for Hangbu in Shucheng County, Anhui ProvinceAbstract: Polder is an important form of land utilisation for agricultural production along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province and provides a typical cultural landscape for residents’ interactions with their environment. Polders, farmlands, dams and the river network comprise a geographical system. The inclusion of local residents and their livestocks in this system form a socio-ecological system, which includes the distinctive regional characteristics of local landscape and played a significant socio-economic role in history. This paper studies the new town planning for the town of Hangbu in Shucheng County, Anhui Province and extracts the spatial patterns and the characteristic value of these polders. This study fully realises the flexible spatio-temporal deployment of water resources, efficient land use, and the significance of intergrowth between community groups and polders in the construction of the new town of Hangbu through the regeneration of the spatial structure, patterns and elements of the heritage of the polder cultural landscape. Thus, an anti-flood ecological safety pattern could be designed and constructed for a modern city with vital urban living spaces. The characteristic polder landscape should be renewed so that ‘ancient polders can serve the present’ and the landscape could function better in the development and construction of a modern city.

Keywords: polder; cultural landscape; heritage value; space regeneration
Zhang Lin, Dai Daixin
070 Practices and Reflections on Residents’ Participation in Heritage Conservation: A Case Study of Courtyard Reorganisation in Dashilar, BeijingAbstract: The participation of residents remaining in their original homes in heritage conservation, especially in living heritage conservation, has gradually become a dominant trend since 2010 for both the academia and policy-makers. Taking the typical historic residential neighbourhood of Dashilar as an example, this study explores the practical difficulties of the participatory conservation policy. In this case, two participatory conservation models: the one initiated by the residents, and one facilitated by the government through application to public funds, failed to achieve courtyard reorganisation. During our research process, we noticed the residents’ spatial behaviour, such as spatial demarcation to protect privacy and other interests, tense neighbourhood relations, loss of courtyard interaction, the neighbourhood committee’s actions were driven by concerns for their reputation and accomplishments, insufficient resources and capabilities for community governance, as well as the problem of distrust among other residents. This case shows that residents’ participation in heritage conservation is not merely a matter of material space, but a systematic social project that faces challenges posed by space, cognition, organisation and institutions. The solution to these problems is an effective promotion of public participation in heritage conservation.

Keywords: historic neighbourhood; courtyard reorganisation; local residents; participatory conservation
Li Alin
078 Non-destructive and Micro-destructive Testing Technology for Status Monitoring of Song Dynasty Wooden Columns in the Main Hall of Baoguo Temple, NingboAbstract: Effective monitoring of wooden architectures is necessary for maintenance and repair planning. Microwave detection, ultrasonic detection and impedance testing, which are nondestructive testing (NDT) and micro-destructive testing (MDT) technologies, are used for on-site surveying and inspection of the Song Dynasty wooden columns in the main hall of Baoguo Temple to compare their feasibilities. On the one hand, the health of the remaining wooden columns is tested. On the other hand, the reliability of these NDT and MDT technologies is studied to provide a basis for future continuous monitoring. Internal semi-quantitative evaluation of wooden columns is performed by analysing the ultrasonic wave velocity and cross-sections of the internal decay inside the columns, which compensates for the failure of traditional qualitative technologies to reach required precisions. Additionally, the test results are used as monitoring records and form a basis for preventive conservation of the Song Dynasty wooden columns in the main hall of Baoguo Temple. Moisture is the main cause of the decay of the wooden columns. Microwave technology can be used to locate the moisture source in the columns by testing the water content at different depths. This provides data to aid in taking effective measures to avoid excessive moisture in the wood. Finally, the characteristics of the NDT and MDT monitoring technologies are introduced to provide a reference for future monitoring of wooden heritage sites.

Keywords: main hall of Baoguo Temple; non-destructive testing; micro-destructive testing; microwave detection; ultrasonic detection; resistograph testing
Chen Lin, Fu Yinghong, Ju Faling, Dai Shibing
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