Introduction to the Conservation and Fransmission of the Wooden Architectural Heritage in Japan from an International PerspectiveAbstract: Wooden architectural heritage has a diversity of cultural values and particularity in its material, which results in many challenges faced by its conservation principles and conservation techniques. This article starts with a retrospective of the development of conservation principles regarding wooden architectural heritage around the world. Then it focuses on Japan which has a long history of wooden architectural heritage conservation, introducing its general cultural background, as well as its theoretical explorations and technical practices so far.
Key words: wooden architectural heritage; conservation principles; conservation techniques
|Kanefusa Masuda, Alejandro Martinez / Translated by Wen Jing|
Reflections on the Preservation and Regeneration Plan of Tsumago-juku in JapanAbstract: How to deal with the huge amount of vernacular built heritage in the urban and rural development of China is one of the most complicated issues to be concerned within the topics of conservation. By tracing back the progress of the preservation and regeneration plan of Tsumago-juku in Japan since the 1960s in the aspects of vernacular building history, conservation concepts, public participation, and preservation technique, the paper focuses on the preservation based on the shōgunate archive Shuku-ezu. It puts forward view points on learning from the experience of the preservation and regeneration plan of Tsumago-juku.
Key words: Tsumago-juku; preservation; regeneration; late shōgunate; Shuku-ezu; doma; pedigree
Research on the Rebuilding History of Kintai Bridge in JapanAbstract: The aim of this research is to present a structured and comprehensive history of the rebuilding process of the Kintai Bridge and to analyse the building knowledge of this particular structure that has been passed down to generations of carpenters, especially in the process of becoming a modern bridge and heritage. The paper reveals that innovations in building technique have been occurring throughout the history and that different value judgements have led to different choices of building technology.
Key words: Kintai Bridge; timber bridges; rebuilding; historical value; skill inheritance
|Theory and History|
Longing and Belonging in Chinese Garden HistoryAbstract: This paper is a study of the historiography of Chinese gardens as its prospects, and deals specifically with exemplary works in modern scholarship and in traditional literature. Two aims are pursued in this study: first, drawing on analytical terms developed in comparative philosophy and the intellectual history of East Asia, this paper highlights the importation of Western imaging techniques and close readings of sources as two topics of methodological significance. Second, this paper elucidates the importance of cross-cultural comparisons in the historiography of Chinese gardens. Two questions are involved: What can a ‘Westernised’ Chinese historiography contribute to new developments in international scholarship in garden history? What resources can be found in existing scholarship in Chinese garden history for challenging Eurocentricism in an international setting?
Key words: historiography of Chinese gardens; visual analysis; textual readings; philosophy of history; cross-cultural analysis
|Stanislaus Fung / Translated by Mu Xiaodong / Proofread by Zhang Sirui,Liu Diyu|
The Preservation of Jinci Temple in Light of Modern-Time Social TransformationAbstract: Due to the far-reaching impact of the Western culture and the response from various social forces, dramatic social transformations have taken place in China over the last 100 years. During this process, the identity of traditional architecture has changed gradually, and a modern concept for preserving cultural relics and historic sites has begun to arise. Taking Jinci Temple as an example of this dramatic transformation in China, this article looks upon the preservation of Jinci Temple as in the historical context of Modern-Time social transformation, analysing the changes caused by peoples’ rising consciousness and changing attitudes towards traditional architecture. The article hopes to put forward an alternative way of thinking to access the preservation of monument hertaige.
Key words: Jinci Temple; historic preservation in Modern Times; social transformation
|Shen Yang, Shen Tong, Zhou Xiaodi|
Representation and Anamorphosis of Renowned Historic Sites: Visualisation of Huqiu in Chinese Paintings between the 14th and the 18th CenturiesAbstract: On examining a series of Chinese paintings between the 14th and the 18th centuries, this article discusses the evolution of Huqiu’s visual representations and tries to elaborate the key factors in the making of its cultural identity as a renowned historic site. Three visual attributes and their counterparts in heritage architecture are paralleled to build a connection between the two disciplines: themes of paintings serve as resources for cultural identity; the same as layouts of topography for visual identity, and ‘Qing Jing Jiaorong’ (the fusion of feelings and sceneries) for ‘spirit of place’ or ‘genius loci’. The Ming-dynasty works were attributed to the Wu School of painters, who depicted Huqiu as ‘Jia shan’ or the hometown hill, indicating an unprecedented triad of ‘people—region—scenery’ connection. In general, the Ming works considered both visual imitation and recollection of the classics which are relevant for the representation of actual sceneries. Nevertheless, later painters showed more interests in ‘pure’ visual imitation of the human eyes. In the case of Qing court works, a visual monopoly was established by introducing lineal perspective. Works depicting the ‘Emperors’ Tours to the South’, with their grandiosity or monumentality, had offered a spectacle, or a ‘grand narrative’ for imaging the sovereignty of the Qing Emperors. A new triad of ‘people—state—scenery’ connection gradually rose and compromised the former version.
Key words: Ming and Qing paintings of Huqiu in Suzhou; renowned historic site; cultural and visual identities; representation and anamorphosis; the Wu School of Painters; Qing emperors’ tours to the south
|072||072WARFIELD COLUMN VI The Language of Dreams||James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi|
Time and Space: The Implementation of Gradual Revitalisation Projects in the Rural Settlements of Eshan Abstract: With the gradual implementation of Eshan projects, the architects increasingly understand the vitality and impact of the ‘native order’ coming from the physical environment and historical context of the rural settlements. Adopting neither the Western concept of ‘urban historical block’, nor the ecological technology perspective which considers villages as natural conservation areas, this article discusses the idea of gradual revitalisation of the rural settlements which is rooted in the local reality of China, and in the continuity of lifestyle and cultural context.
Key words: Eshan projects; native order; time and space; appropriate technology; publicity; gradual revitalisation
|Wang Kai, Zhou Dezhang, Zhang Lei/td>|
Evolution of Spatial Pattern under the Influence of Small Changes: A Study on the Adaptation Strategy in the Spatial Evolution of Traditional Vernacular Dwellings in the Jiangnan RegionAbstract: This paper focuses on the case study of the basic spatial unit of a vernacular dwelling in the ancient town of Luzhi, Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province. There are two basic characteristics of the autonomous adaptation strategy in the evolution of the vernacular dwelling spaces. First, evolution of spatial pattern under the influence of small changes; second, evolution of spatial growth pattern under the influence of increased spatial density. Finally, this paper summarises the significance of the adaptation strategy to the protection and regeneration design of vernacular dwelling heritage.
Key words: Jiangnan region; vernacular dwelling; evolution; adaptation strategy
|112||Book Review: Architecture and Ritual||Ren Xiang|
|114||News in Brief|
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Following the 3rd Issue of Heritage Architecture which addresses the theme of vernacular architecture, this issue expands the scope to Japan by focusing on the experiences of vernacular architecture conservation and regeneration in the rural construction. The ‘Special Focus’ column of this issue presents three articles on this topic.
Kanefusa Masuda and Alejandro Martinez’s article ‘Introduction to the Conservation and Transmission of the Wooden Architectural Heritage in Japan from an International Perspective’ discusses the competition and complementation between modern and traditional approaches in the restorations of timber-framed historical buildings, stressing the necessity to conserve traditions of restorations and bring back lost techniques. Pan Yue’s article ‘Reflections on the Preservation and Regeneration Plan of Tsumago-juku in Japan’ investigates the renowned integrated conservation project of the rural heritage Tsumago-juku. It traces back the three phases of the conservation since the 1960s, teasing out the process of change regarding the history, conservation concepts, policy making, public participation, conservation technique and so on, providing an inspiring reference for the preservation and regeneration of the vernacular architecture in rural China. Ren Congcong’s article ‘Research on the Rebuilding History of Kintai Bridge in Japan’ reviews the changes of Kintai Bridge during the 42 times of reconstruction since 1673, particularly focusing on the stage since the mid-20th century when the structure of the bridge was changed. Based on historical records and 12 old drawings, the article discusses the possibility of regaining the authenticity of heritage through reconstruction when improper repairs have caused the loss of the authenticity in materials and techniques.
This issue’s ‘Theory and History’ column features three articles. First is ‘Longing and Belonging in Chinese Garden History’, written 20 years ago by Stanislaus Fung when he started his research on Chinese garden history. This article begins with the theoretical path of the academic world of the West which emphasises theoretical paradigms, situating the topics discussed by Chinese scholars in the transcultural theoretical frame of the international academia, and suggesting the potential value of the visual analysis of Chinese gardens. The second article is ‘The Preservation of Jinci Temple in Light of Modern-Time Social Transformation’ by Shen Yang, Shen Tong and Zhou Xiaodi, which examines the influence of the past 100 years’ social transformation on the cognition of heritage, focusing on the changes in physical forms, scenes and rituals of sacrificial architecture caused by the cultural and functional transformation. The third article ‘Representation and Anamorphosis of Renowned Historic Sites: Visualisation of Huqiu in Chinese Paintings between the 14th and 19th Centuries’ by Wu Hongde analyses the evolution of the visual representations of Huqiu (Tiger Hill) between the 14th and 19th centuries, situating it in the background of the gradual conversion of cultural identity from the local consciousness of the Wu School painters in Ming dynasty to the national consciousness expressed by the Qing dynasty court painters.
In the ‘Project Analysis’ column, two articles on the practice and research of heritage preservation and revitalisation are presented. One is ‘Time and Space: The Implementation of Gradual Revitalisation Projects in the Rural Settlements of Eshan’ by Wang Kai, Zhou Dezhang and Zhang Lei, recording the design for the rural built heritage which still maintains the local cultural context. The authors bring forth the thought of searching for temporal continuity of the vernacular memories rather than the spatial transformation that gives up personal interests, leading to a strategy for the gradual revitalisation of rural settlements featured with ‘stimulating the old in the new and creating the new with the old’. Second is ‘Evolution of Spatial Pattern under the Influence of Small Changes: A Study on the Adaptation Strategy in the Spatial Evolution of Traditional Vernacular Dwellings in the Jiangnan Region’ by Zhang Wei. Taking the Xuan Residence of Luzhi in Suzhou as an example, the article traces back the dynamic evolution of the house in different historical periods and social systems. It analyses the various influencing factors, suggesting that ‘spatial density increasing’ could be a valuable exploration for vernacular settlements in both research and practice.
The Warfield Column of this issue takes ‘the language of dreams’ as the subject, presenting nice documentary photos on the colours of vernacular architecture taken by the author. In the text, Paul Gauguin’s immortal line ‘Colour! What a deep and mysterious language, the language of dreams’ is quoted to explain that the rare expressions of colours in vernacular architecture are either natural expressions or expressions of cultural implications and their symbolisation.
Closing this issue, there is a book review of Architecture and Ritual: How Buildings Shape Society contributed by the author Peter Blundell Jones’ student Ren Xiang, to commemorate this renowned architectural historian who passed away on the publication of the book. As a book full of architectural anthropological sense, it discusses how the interaction between rituals and architecture affects the constitutive characteristics of societies.