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2018/3 (No.11)

2018/3(No.11)
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Editorial
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001 The Remains of Ancient Chu Culture in Huxiang Architectural Art Abstract: Chu culture is an important branch of ancient Chinese culture. Its artistic style takes romanticism as a basic feature that contrasts with the realistic culture of the Central Plains. Qin eradicated the six countries (230–221 BC) and unified tianxia (land under heaven), bringing destruction to the state of Chu and leading to the decline of Chu culture. However, traces of the romantic Chu culture can still be found in the traditional buildings of present-day Hunan Province and the surrounding provinces (Huxiang), and are completely different from the northern architectural styles. These are the clear remains of ancient Chu culture. This paper sorts out the differences between Chu culture and the culture of the Central Plains, discussing the essential characteristics of Chu architecture and art. It also analyses the reasons for the decline of Chu culture and the remains of this culture in the architecture of the Huxiang area, as well as in southern China.

Keywords: Chu culture; romanticism; cultural characteristics; southern architecture; heritage remains
Liu Su
009 The Cradle of Wuchu Culture, the Hometown of Mountain Ghosts: The Historical and Cultural Origins of Vernacular Architecture and Characteristics of Vernacular Dwellings in Xiangxi Abstract: The essence of traditional Chinese architecture can be observed in vernacular architecture, which is an indispensable and important branch of traditional Chinese culture. The Wuchu culture deeply influenced western Hunan and western Hubei, which belonged to the ancient state of Chu and where the Tujia and Miao minorities now live. Based on an analysis of the historical and cultural origins of vernacular architecture in Xiangxi (northwestern region of Hunan Province), this article explores the characteristics of Xiangxi dwellings: i.e., their layouts, structures, and spatial constitutions. Vernacular architecture in Xiangxi was deeply influenced by Wuchu culture and constructed to respect the natural environment and highlight various regional characteristics. These romantically designed buildings have a pure beauty of simplicity and roughness. This article specifically focuses on the stilt houses of the Tujia and Miao minorities, including a detailed depiction of how tiaolang and ganlan, two different types of stilt houses adapt to their environments and form the unique landscape of Xiangxi villages.

Keywords: vernacular architecture; Xiangxi; Wuchu culture; Tujia minority; Miao minority; stilt house
Wei Yili
Theory and History
016 Regional Division and Genealogical Research Approach to Construction Technologies in Southern Chinese Vernacular Architecture with Regard to Communication Theories and Methods Abstract: Traditional construction technology heritage has its own unique rules and methods regarding propagation. Prior studies on this subject are based on research of local construction techniques in the southern part of the Yangtze River. Against this backdrop, we aim to study all vernacular architecture in southern China. Then, based on research of representative craftsperson factions, we attempt to use communication science theory and methods to discuss the relationship and influence of construction techniques and architectural forms and styles in terms of meanings, technologies and forms of cultural and technological communication paths in ancient China—such as post roads, waterways, sea routes, trade routes and migration routes—in those areas. We have already researched the ruler systems, craftsperson factions and architectural forms in southern China. Through this project, we hope to achieve two goals: geographically, to improve the integrity and systematicness of the research on southern vernacular architecture, and historically, to study the origins and changes in crafts in southern China, as well as their influence on official architecture. Through this study, we hope to fill gaps or shortcomings in the field of architectural history.

Keywords: vernacular architecture; construction technique; technology communication; origin and change
Li Zhen, Lei Dongxia
022 Chu Elements in the Miao Minority Residential Culture Abstract: The study, through an extensive literature review and field investigations, compares descriptions of Chu customs in historical documents and those from memories in Miao folk literature. These include seating culture, ritual space and orientation, nodes in witchcraft cultural space, and constructional customs. The relationship between the Miao residential culture and ancient Chu culture are explained to aid exploration of the possible residual modes of Chu cultural elements in the living spaces of the Miao minority. Only vague evidence of Chu customs is found to exist in the Miao’s scenes of life. Their residential culture, such as seating traditions, sacrificial space and orientation, indoor and outdoor witchcraft nodes, and construction customs, are related to Chu customs in varying degrees.

Keywords: Miao minority; residential culture; Chu cultural element; cultural connection; spatial prototype of residence
Tang Shikuang
031 Preliminary Study of Vernacular Architecture Pedigree in the Xiang Dialect Area: Analysis of Building Types and Their Distribution from the Perspective of Plan Configuration Abstract: On the basis of a review of the existing literature on Huxiang vernacular architecture and the analysis of the relationship between the architecture in Hunan and in the surrounding areas, this article focuses on the architecture in the Xiang dialect area, paying special attention to six dialect sub-areas divided primarily by following the distribution of dialect area, sub-area and historical administrative unit area. On the basis of a detailed study of settlement form and plan configuration, together with structural features, decorative techniques and building taboos, the article concludes that the six dialect sub-areas can be merged into four vernacular pedigree areas, with the Changyiheng area and Xiangshuang sub-area comprising one pedigree area and the Dongqi, Wushao and Xinhua areas comprising separate areas due to their distinguishing characteristics.

Keywords: Huxiang vernacular architecture; Xiang dialect area; vernacular pedigree; characteristics; plan configuration
Wu Sha
Heritage Illustration
039 WARFIELD COLUMN XI Ghosts, Shadows and Palimpsests: Memory in Architecture James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi / Proofread by Sun Xinfei
Project Analysis
057 Traditional Academy as Spatial Heritage: Cognition, Value-Bearing and Conservation Abstract: Research on the traditional academy has mainly focused on its historical origin, institution, spatial configuration and cultural context. However, a systematic recognition of its value and methodologies for its sustainable conservation and adaptive reuse within contemporary society remain gaps within the literature. This article proposes a concept of spatial heritage that draws on theories of cultural heritage and space production and outlines a method for performing spatial analysis that is oriented by heritage value. Accordingly, it elucidates the relationship between heritage values and the entire spatial environment (area, framework and boundaries) by revealing the authenticity value of academic freedom and the integral value of its elements. These elements, illustrated through specific examples, include book collections, sacrifice, lectures and farmland. A theoretical framework for developing strategies to promote sustainable conservation of the traditional academy, conceived as spatial heritage, is subsequently proposed. In conclusion, this study provides conceptual inputs that can contribute to the conservation and development of the heritage of the traditional academy.

Keywords: traditional academy; spatial heritage; heritage value
Li Xiaofeng, Wu Yiwei
063 An Overview of the Implementation of Conservation Master Plans in Zhangguying Village in Hunan Province of China and an Evaluation of Their BenefitsAbstract: This article presents a critical assessment of the implementation and impacts of various conservation master plans formulated for Zhangguying Village, the culturally and historically famous village in Hunan Province of China. It begins by reviewing conservation planning and protection relating to historical and cultural Chinese towns and villages. Subsequently, it reports on the findings of a comprehensive post-implementation evaluation of conservation master plans in Zhangguying, drawing on a field investigation, data obtained from questionnaires and interviews conducted with officials, and a comparison of related plans in this village. The evaluation focused on the protection of built cultural relics, renovation of residential buildings in proximity to heritage buildings, including built cultural relics and historic buildings, infrastructure development and the construction of facilities for the public and tourists in Zhangguying. The social and economic benefits associated with the implementation of various conservation master plans formulated for Zhangguying are also assessed. In conclusion, the article presents a summary of the strengths and gaps in these plans and an overall evaluation of their impacts. The findings are intended to provide inputs that have relevance for the preparation and implementation of conservation master plans not only in Zhangguying but also in other traditional villages.

Keywords: conservation master plan; benefit evaluation; historically and culturally famous town and village; Zhangguying Village
He Feng, Mao Yimin, Zhang Jiyuan, Chu Xinfeng
071 Constructing an Architectural Heritage Corridor along the Zishui River of the Ancient Tea Road in Hunan ProvinceAbstract: The concept of a heritage corridor originated in the United States and is a new method for the regional protection of linear cultural heritage sites. Constructing heritage corridors accurately is of great significance for the protection of the integrity and authenticity of the Ancient Tea Road’s architectural heritage. This study explores a rational construction of the architectural heritage corridor along the Zishui River in Hunan Province through an in-depth analysis of the distribution, heritage relevance and spatial structure of the heritage sites. Thus, it provides a new thought for the protection of cultural heritage and advances the work in applying for World Heritage Site status for the Ancient Tea Road.

Keywords: Ancient Tea Road; Hunan Province; Zishui River; linear cultural heritage; heritage corridor
Chen Hui, Cao Dong, Zou Yuan, Meng Sicheng
Exploration and Debate
078 Design of the Yinziwu Museum in Changde: A Poetic Metaphor and a Philosophical Construction Abstract: Against the background of the rapid economic changes in China, the great quantity and volume of architecture in the cities can overwhelm our senses. The architecture and interior design of the Yinziwu Museum in Changde, Hunan Province, expresses reverence and remembrance for the local history. This building is a spatial annotation in the inheritance and revival of Chinese culture. The Yinziwu Museum’s explanation of the details of its architectural spaces discusses how a dialogue between traditional and modern design was realised, how the scenes of the life of Changde locals were constructed, and how Changde’s historical context was extended through the language of design and traditional building technologies.

Keywords: Yinziwu; Changde; vernacular dwelling; museum
He Qing
092 News in Brief 008Call for Papers

 

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