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2018/4 (No.12)

Special Focus
001 Vernacular Architectural Design Methods in Jiangyou: The Sky-well House Abstract: Design method, as the integration of local crafts and techniques characteristics, is one of the core contents of vernacular architecture. Taking typical sky-well houses in the Gan dialect area as an example, this study analyses three principles of their construction rules: i.e., the basic units and their combinations, the guobai (a strip of sky) view design and the zhanggan ruler. The scales and compositions of each part of the building are also explored. This study further examines the methods and steps of sky-well house design. The role and significance of vernacular architectural design methods in the pedigree research and the proactive inheritance of vernacular architecture are also discussed.

Keywords: Jiangyou; vernacular architecture pedigree; design method; sky-well house; Gan dialect area; basic unit
Liang Zhiyao
013 Characteristics and Change of the Dipan Patterns for the Vernacular Architecture in East Jiangxi and North Fujian AreasAbstract: Based on first-hand surveying and mapping data, this study identified two prototypes of chaliang frame (i.e., a mixed chuandou and tailiang frame) in the dipan (first-floor plan) patterns of the vernacular architecture in the east Jiangxi and north Fujian areas. One is the ‘two-rafter beams in the front, four-rafter beams in the middle and two-rafter beams at the back’ frame, while the other frame is a ‘one-rafter beam’. The prototype of chuandou (i.e., a column-and-tie-beam) frames in vernacular architecture dipans is the ‘one-rafter beam in the front, two two-rafter beams in the middle and one-rafter beams at the back’ frame. This frame was designed by adding yongzhu and qimenzhu columns, changing the number of jiachuan (i.e., number of rafter lengths in space between two purlins) and adding jiachuan at the back. This prototype and variations are used in both east Jiangxi and north Fujian areas. Moreover, the similarities and differences between the construction principles of tailiang (i.e., column-beam-and-strut), chaliang and chuandou frames are identified, where the difference lies in the structure and its variation from the prototype. Finally, changes in the dipan patterns in the east Jiangxi and north Fujian areas were analysed through their distribution patterns in geographical space. The results provide a reference for the protection and repair of vernacular architecture as well as the effective inheritance of traditional building wisdom in new constructions in this region and adjacent areas.

Keywords: east Jiangxi and north Fujian areas; vernacular architecture; dipan; change
Li Jiujun
022 Dissemination and Transformation of Pan-Tianmen Vernacular Dwellings in Jiangxi ProvinceAbstract: The tianmen vernacular dwellings in the Jitai area of Jiangxi Province were once considered to be a housing type unique to this region. However, recent studies and field works have revealed that similar vernacular dwellings are found in south Hunan and north Guangdong. These three areas are close to each other and share a seasonal climate that is hot in summer and cold in winter. Moreover, they used to belong to the same administrative district in history. Most of the population in south Hunan and north Guangdong were immigrants from Jitai area, which led to frequent cultural exchanges among these three areas. Therefore, the emergence of pan-tianmen vernacular dwellings in south Hunan and north Guangdong is inferred to be the result of architectural cultural communication through cultural exchange and immigration, and built upon environmental adaption to the climate. During the process of dissemination, the prototype tianmen dwellings have transformed in terms of their drainage system, courtyards, depth of the house, location of entrance, etc.

Keywords: pan-tianmen vernacular dwellings; dissemination; transformation; Jiangxi vernacular dwellings; south Hunan vernacular dwellings; north Guangdong vernacular dwellings
Pan Ying, Tian Tian
029 Characteristics of Lichuan Vernacular Architecture Construction Techniques in the Context of Traditional Construction and the Distribution of Linchuan-Style Vernacular Architecture under the Gan SystemAbstract: Using data for nearly 100 buildings from the Ming and Qing dynasties in addition to a large amount of oral data from interviews with craftsmen, four aspects of the characteristics of construction techniques for Lichuan rural buildings were characterised systematically: i.e., dipan (first-floor plan), shanjia (timber structure), wushui (bending degrees of roofs) and the yingzaochi modulus. Furthermore, the possible origin of chaliang construction (a mixed chuandou and tailiang frame) in this region is discussed along with the absolute modulus of local rulers. Finally, the diversity and complexity of the local yingzaochi modulus was explored to identify Linchuan-style vernacular architecture in the Gan region.

Keywords: vernacular architecture; construction techniques; Jiangxi Province; Lichuan; steel columns; chaliang; tuojia; zhishui; yabai
Li Zhen, Ding Ximing
038 An Analysis of the Types and Vernacular Pedigree of Poyang Lake Basin Dwellings with Open Halls and Sky Wells from the Perspective of GuobaiAbstract: During the Tang and Song dynasties, Poyang Lake Basin was a prosperous and developed area. It was also the hometown of two famous craftsmen, Lei Li and Lei Fada. Through field investigations in traditional villages in this area, this study found that Poyang Lake Basin dwellings were mainly organised with tianjing (sky well) directly attached to an open hall. Moreover, the guobai characteristic was commonly observed in this dwelling type; i.e., a strip of sky could be seen between the eaves of the hall and the ridge of the front building from the rear part of the hall. The origin and spread of guobai in China was explored according to its distribution. Thus, the relationship between guobai and dwelling types with open halls and sky wells are discussed from the perspectives of form and tectonics. Finally, taking guobai as a criterion, this study examined the vernacular architectural pedigree of the Poyang Lake Basin area.

Keywords: guobai; Poyang Lake Basin; open-hall-and-sky-well dwelling; vernacular pedigree
Zhang Haibin
049 Spatial Characteristics and Derivations of Tuku Dwellings in the Poyang Lake BasinAbstract: The Poyang Lake Basin is the cultural birthplace of the Jiangyou region of the Yangtze River and is characterised by tuku dwellings, which are a native type of housing. Taking tuku as a basic dwelling type as the research object, this study identified the influence of natural and cultural factors on this architectural form by analysing its constituent elements and characteristics in detail. Basic type variations were classified according to their internal causes; thus, the general and special derivations of tuku dwellings were categorised and explained. Based on a summary of the various housing types in the Jiangyou region, this study analysed their regional distribution characteristics, leading to an inferred identification of the vernacular architectural pedigree of the Jiangyou region from geographical, cultural and societal perspectives.

Keywords: Jiangyou; Poyang Lake Basin; tuku dwelling; basic type; derivation
Men Chang
Theory and History
062 Parallel Rivers: Regional Characteristics of Traditional Architecture in Jiangxi ProvinceAbstract: The traditional architecture in Jiangxi Province has a variety of regional characteristics because of its specific historical and cultural traditions, and the natural environment. The four main cultural traditions of Jiangxi Province, i.e., Confucianism, clan residence, industry and commerce, and multiple religions, are respectively highlighted in four provincial regions. The central, southern, north-eastern and western regions of Jiangxi Province show different regional characteristics in their traditional architecture, which reflects these areas’ substantial cultural diversity. This diversity in characteristics can be attributed to environmental differences, geographical separations, waterway-based trade routes, ongoing immigration movements and long-term, stable administrative divisions.

Keywords: traditional architecture; regional characteristics; Jiangxi Province; cultural diversity
Yao Tang
069 Wang Yangming and the Rise of Vernacular Fortified Dwellings in South Jiangxi ProvinceAbstract: This paper attempts to analyse the relationship between Wang Yangming, one of the most important Neo-Confucian thinkers in China, the government’s strategy to ‘subdue rebels by taking advantage of rebels’, and the development of fortified dwellings in Gannan (now south Jiangxi Province) and nearby regions. It does so by drawing on an analysis of the origin, development and evolution of the different types of Hakka fortified dwellings from the Ming and Qing dynasties in Gannan. Fortified dwellings of different types include the weicun (walled village), the castle village, the tubao (earthen fort), and the weiwu (walled house) in southern Jiangxi; the tulou (earthen building) in southwest Fujian; the sidianjin (rectangular walled house with gun towers at the four corners) in northeast Guangdong; and the weibao (walled fort) in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. The paper argues that although there is no historical material showing directly that, as the Grand Coordinator of Nangan, Wang Yangming advocated the building of village castles and walled houses to resist the harassment of bandits, fortified dwellings either appeared or prevailed in the ‘eight prefectures and one sub-prefecture’ during and after the reign of Emperor Zhengde, during which Wang was the Grand Coordinator.

Keywords: Wang Yangming; fortified dwelling; Hakka; Gannan
Wan Younan
Heritage Illustration
080 WARFIELD COLUMN XII Architecture as Stage Set for Ritual Place James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi
Project Analysis
095 Industrial Heritage as the Motivator of City Revitalisation in the Post-Industrial Era: Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Philadelphia Navy YardAbstract: The Philadelphia Navy Yard was one of the earliest naval shipyards in the United States and the birthplace of the US Navy. Between its establishment in 1868 and the ceasing of operations in 1996, the Navy Yard witnessed the Civil War, two World Wars, the Cold War and other major historical events, becoming simultaneously an important carrier of Philadelphia’s industrial history and social life. The beginning of 2003 saw the launch of the campaign to preserve and rehabilitate the Navy Yard, and in the past 15 years, this 1 200-acre industrial area has been successfully transformed into an experimental site for heritage preservation, mixed-function development, green sustainable construction and new energy systems, becoming a major motivator in the revitalisation of the city in the post-industrial era. This paper begins with the history and characteristics of the Philadelphia Navy Yard and discusses its unique value and importance to the city and the state. A study of its conservation and regeneration methods is used to examine the significance of heritage preservation as an important means of urban renewal and the increasingly profound engagement of heritage preservation with environmental protection and social justice.

Keywords: Philadelphia Navy Yard; industrial heritage; preservation; rehabilitation; urban revitalisation
Zhang Peng, Chen Xi
103 Design and Construction of Barrier-free Environment in Heritage Sites: A Comparison Based on Asian ExperiencesAbstract: This research seeks to establish an important link between heritage site planning and barrier-free environment design, expanding the space categories and extending the social connotations of the existing discussions on barrier-free environment. This article, first expounds the concepts and contents of ‘heritage sites’ and ‘barrier-free environment’, then analyses the present situation, problems and their causes regarding the design and construction of a barrier-free environment in heritage sites, and emphasises the significance of barrier-free design and construction in the practice of barrier-free environment sites. On the basis of the analysis above, taking representative Asian countries such as Japan, India, Bangladesh and China as examples, the article briefly compares the relevant laws, regulations and standards of barrier-free design in Asian countries, and further elaborates on the cases of barrier-free environment in Asian heritage sites, so as to shed light on the design of barrier-free environment in heritage sites in China.

Keywords: heritage sites; barrier-free environment; Asian experiences
Huang Yi, Zhang Shunhao, Jinia Sharmeen, Zhu Xiaoyu
110 Spatial Investigation of Architectural Heritage in an Urban-rural Continuum: a Conversation in Yu County
Ding Yao,Liu Dongyang,Feng Jiang,
Pan Yue/Organised by Dang Sheng
115 News in Brief


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