Pedigree of Min-style Vernacular Architecture in Fujian Province: Distribution and Evolution Based on a systematic survey of vernacular architecture in Fujian Province, this paper explores the relationships between different subregions of Min-style vernacular architecture. Using plan layouts, the Min-style vernacular architecture in three subdialect areas of eastern, southern and central Fujian Province were explored and five main characteristics were identified. (1) The plan layout shows a clear hierarchy, e.g., principal rooms with the main hall at the centre, the courtyard with principal rooms at its centre, and the enclosed houses with courtyards at their centre. (2) Straight beams are mainly used in the main timber framework, which combines both column-and-tie-beam frames (chuandou) and column-beam-and-strut-style structures (tailiang), as exemplified by the chaliang structure used in the central bay. (3) The structure of the enclosure mainly comprises wattle and daub walls, which are supplemented by rammed earth, brick and tile firewalls to seal the walls against fire. (4) The eaves are far-reaching and lifted by bracket arms, while the bracket-arm forms represent building ranks. (5) The rich decoration is mostly concentrated on small components; e.g., the bracket sets are made in many different ways, and many decorative components are actually derived from them.
Keywords: core region of Min-style architecture; vernacular architecture; pedigree; characteristics; plan layout
Modularisation and Standardisation in Construction of Earthen Forts in Fujian: Case Study of Three Qing Dynasty Earthen Forts in Youxi CountyThrough a survey and analysis of three earthen forts (tubao) of the Qing Dynasty in Youxi County, Fujian Province, this study examined traditional construction thinking with respect to modularisation and standardisation. Those features have helped fuel the fascination with earthen fort architecture. This study investigated the modularised planning used in terraced sites; modularised measurements used in frame structures; the influence of standardised beams for parts and the overall structure; and modifications applied to the standardised approach. In this way, the methods used in earthen fort construction in Youxi became evident with respect to design, planning, and construction techniques.
Keywords: Fujian's earthen forts; modularisation; standardisation; traditional construction system
Architectural Terminology and Spatial Concepts in Dacuo Housing: Middle and Late Qing Dynasty Jiushu Contracts of Aijingzhuang and Renhezhuang, Eastern Fujian Province This paper explains the architectural terminology for the dacuo (i.e., large-scale traditional vernacular housing) in eastern Fujian Province by deciphering the local architectural words in jiushu (i.e., contracts distributing the estate among lineage members) of Aijingzhuang and Renhezhuang large houses. After analysing the words used in jiushu, two types of space-locating systems are identified: i.e., the homogeneity of spaces that obey the accurate geographic orthogonal grid and the hierarchy of space, which reflects the hierarchy among lineage members. Through a close reading of the scheme of estate distribution among lineage members, its strategy is found to follow three main rules to ensure the lineage's stable inhabitation: i.e., to interweave property locations among brothers to maintain the combination of family members in a dacuo; an equal distribution of numbers of rooms and qualities of spaces among sons, which ensures equality within a lineage; and the hierarchy among lineage members, such as priority given to the eldest son in each generation, which can be seen in the hierarchy in dacuo residential plans.
Keywords: dacuo; eastern Fujian Province; architectural terminology; spatial concept; plan configuration; jiushu
Principles in Plane Dimensions of Vernacular Dwellings in the Coastal Area of Southern Fujian: Example of Tukeng Village in Quangang District, QuanzhouThe layout of traditional courtyard residences in the coastal area of southern Fujian is influenced by local natural and cultural factors, and it has a distinctive regional style. That residential pattern is common in the area, and it reflects the great wisdom of master craftsmen. This paper makes a preliminary study of the principles used in the dimensions of courtyard residences in Tukeng Village, Houlong Town (Quangang District of Quanzhou), which is a historical and cultural site protected at the provincial level. The study examined the rationale behind the construction principles and layout patterns using field surveys, interviews with craftsmen, and data analysis. This paper aims to provide a reference for future architectural design, heritage conservation, and renovation.
Keywords: vernacular dwellings in southern Fujian; layout mode; principles of dimensions; construction ruler
|Cheng Li, Gu Huangjie|
Isomorphism of Chaoshan and Hakka Vernacular Settlements in Guangdong ProvinceThe Chaoshan and Hakka vernacular settlements of Guangdong Province not only differ from Khanfu vernacular settlements, but also exhibit clear distinctions from the Hoklo and Hakka vernacular settlements of Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. After migrating from the ancient central plains, the Chaoshan and Hakka architecture in Guangdong Province retained relatively more ancient characteristics and are highly isomorphic. From the perspective of their clan structure, such settlements either consist of large branch dwellings or small family dwellings. In the large dwellings, both Chaoshan and Hakka dwellings feature tanghengshi layout (a courtyard compound with a main-hall sequence along the central axis and side rooms on both sides), which gradually evolved into two different patterns.
Keywords: Chaoshan; Hakka; clan structure; tanghengshi; isomorphism; evolution pattern
|Theory and History|
Stacking and Framing: Tectonic Classification and Characteristics of Fujian Hakka Multi-storey Pavilion with Combined Rammed Earth Construction and Timberwork Structure In the Hakka area of Fujian Province, a number of large-scale, multi-storey pavilions (louge) were built in diverse styles using a combined rammed earth construction and timberwork structure. This combined structure uses both of the two common construction methods in ancient Chinese architecture, i.e., rammed earth and timber framing. This paper first clarifies the distribution pattern of Hakka multi-storey pavilions. It then summarises three methods of combined rammed earth construction and timberwork: ‘earth under wood’, ‘mainly earthen’, and ‘exterior earthen, interior wooden’. In the end, the paper provides a discussion of the structural logic and different architectural characteristics of the three construction methods through an in-depth study of various typical cases.
Keywords: Hakka; multi-storey pavilion (louge); combined rammed earth construction and timberwork structure; stack up; timber framing
|Li Xiaoqian, Huang Jinglin|
Making a Ridge Beam: The Structural Carpentry of the Nine-Halls-and-Eighteen-Sky-Wells Residence in the Hakka Cultural Region of Western Fujian Understood through a Holistic Approach to TechniqueThe key step in building the traditional nine-halls-and-eighteen-sky-wells residence in the western Fujian Hakka cultural region is the construction of the ridge beam. The importance of the ridge beam may lie not only in the complicated and unique craftsmanship involved and its significance in the structural framework, but also in its symbolic meaning in the vernacular folk faith. By taking as an example the construction of a ridge beam in Deng Village, Longyan, by local carpenters using traditional craftsmanship, this article teases out the interaction between the technique and the related social context through the local language that the craftsmen used in the construction process. The article divides the construction process into seven steps: accepting the commission, deciding the length, choosing the required timber material, making the beam in public, accomplishment of the primary form, decoration, and the raising of the beam to the ridge. This process shows the influence of the state, market, customs, and craftsmen on the practice of technique. Adopting the holistic approach to technique provided by Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social practice and Tim Ingold's view on skills, the article also reveals the neglect and concealment of the value of traditional craftsmanship in the modern academic discourse, politics, and market for capital to argue for practical reason in the folk art of traditional architecture construction, to explore the intellectual foundation of the preservation of traditional construction skills and the local lifeworld in which it is rooted, and to seek for a native discourse in vernacular dwelling research.
Keywords: Hakka vernacular architecture; local craftsmanship; holistic approach to technique; nine-halls-and-eighteen-sky-wells residence; Fujian
Aesthetic and Cultural Characteristics of the Architectural Decorations of Residential Buildings Constructed by Overseas Chinese Returnees in Modern XiamenA fusion of Chinese and foreign architectural decoration, including characteristics of the regional cultural personality, have gradually been developed in the unique historical period of modern Xiamen because of the strong input from foreign architectural culture imported by overseas Chinese returnees to their hometowns. The unique pursuit of aesthetic ideals in the residential buildings constructed by such returnees in their hometown of Xiamen is discussed through an in-depth analysis and interpretation of the regional architectural technical features, the social spirit, and the characteristics of the area's arts and humanities.
Keywords: architectural aesthetics; modern Xiamen; residential architecture in overseas Chinese returnees' hometowns; architectural decoration; aesthetic culture
|Wei Feng, Guo Huanyu|
|076||WARFIELD COLUMN XIII The Role of Wall Paintings in the Ascent of Man||James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi|
Place and Monumentality: Understanding a Fujian Shrine In studies of Chinese architectural history, the shrine is one of the less-discussed building types. This paper examines the Stone Drum Temple (Shigumiao), an ancient shrine in Jinjiang, Fujian Province, the history of which can be traced back to the Southern Song Dynasty. On the basis of fieldwork and historical documents, the paper establishes a rich narrative of the shrine and its place, using the combined perspectives of social history and changes in architectural space. The paper also engages in an in-depth analysis to discuss the characteristics of the shrine's architecture and concludes with reflections on the preservation of cultural heritage in the context of traditional settlements.
Keywords: shrine; heritage architecture; settlement; preservation; folk beliefs; Fujian Province
Translation and Transplantation: Zhenshentang as a Sacred Prototype and Pragmatic Collage, Yuankeng Village, Fujian ProvinceThis paper discusses the prototype of single-towered Gothic church and its adaptability in the Chinese vernacular construction by using the case of Zhenshentang (the Church of Truly God) in Yuankeng Village (Fujian Province, China). Since the 19th century, this prototype has been widely adopted in the village church construction in Fujian Province due to the limited resources. The construction of this type of church mainly used a combination of translation and transplantation to obtain connection to and identification with the local traditional culture. Though the ‘sacredness’ of a church is weakened by this way of construction, it has gained lasting vitality in China.
Keywords: vernacular architecture; village church; construction; prototype; translation; transplantation; Fujian Province
|Tang Lizhou, Li Zhen|
Spatial Structure Characteristics, Conservation, and Development of Traditional Villages in Ningde: Kangli Village, Pingnan CountyTaking Kangli Village in Ningde as an example, this article investigates traditional villages in eastern Fujian Province, summarises their spatial structure characteristics, and discusses their cultural and historical values. Based on this research, the problems experienced by Kangli Village during the historical conservation process are addressed to provide some adaptive suggestions for the conservation and development of the village. The promotion of a harmonious combination of the protection, regeneration, and development of traditional villages is based on a conceptual shift from relying on endogenous evolution to meeting the needs of village development and transformation, revitalising the built environment, adaptive renovations, and relying on the driving force initiated by the reconstruction of villagers' cultural self-identity and management institutions.
Keywords: traditional villages; spatial structure characteristics; conservation; development
|Ding Chang, Wan Mengqi, Wang Dong|
|114||Regarding Le Corbusier||Niu Yanfang, Liu Dongyang|
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