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2016/4 (No.4)

Recently, CCTV revealed the demolition of a Shikumen Lilong neighbourhood on the edge of a historical and cultural area, arousing considerable and constant attention among scholars, professionals,
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Editorial
Special Focus
001 Reflection on Shanghai Shikumen Lilong RehabilitationAbstract: Regarding the urban culture, daily life, and urban development of Shanghai, the rehabilitation of Shikumen Lilong is one of the most prominent issues. This paper intends to respond to this issue from two perspectives. First are three aspects starting from the history, including the morphological characteristics of Shikumen Lilong in the early modern times, its typological evolution through history, and its socio-spatial transformation, so as to explain the internal and external reasons behind the demolition threats it encounters today. Second are three aspects starting from the current situation, that is, Shikumen Lilong as the distinctive cityscape of Shanghai, its adaptive regeneration, and its potential as a new mode of urban development. The paper suggests the ways and conditions for the conservation and rehabilitation of Shikumen Lilong and points out that heritage value, function, and institution are the three most relevant factors. The paper concludes that Shikumen Lilong is both a cultural heritage of Shanghai and the place of people’s daily life, its conservation and rehabilitation depends on the consensus and collaboration of various social forces to promote community progress.

Key words: Shikumen Lilong; urban rehabilitation; conservation; community progress
Liu Gang
012 On the Practice of Shanghai Lilong Preservation and Rehabilitation Abstract: This article gives a brief introduction to the history of preservation and rehabilitation of the Shanghai Lilong since the implementation of the reform and open door policy in 1978. From the perspectives of heritage conservation, building rehabilitation, and urban renewal, the article identifies the contradictions and problems regarding policy-making, fire control, and energy saving. It intends to provide reference and thinking for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Shanghai Lilong in the future.

Key words: Shanghai Lilong; preservation; rehabilitation; practice
Lin Yun
Theory and History
021 Sustainable Heritage Impact Factor Theory (SHIFT): A Complexity Framework for Heritage Assessment and PlanningAbstract: This position paper presents a research agenda for a new science of heritage drawing strengths from complexity theory. The starting point is the conference organized and chaired by the two authors in Singapore on 'Heritage Science as a Complex System' (Nanyang Technological University, 6-7 January 2014). In this conference, we established common grounds between the people who work directly on heritage related problems, and the people who work on complexity theory. As a working definition we consider heritage as the treasure of human experiences (i.e., the comprehensive storage system of human knowledge and values). To make heritage organised, accessible, and useful in our increasingly complex society we envision a new science of heritage, seen as a state-of-the-art multidisciplinary domain, which investigates and pioneers integrated action plans and solutions in response to, and in anticipation of, the challenges arising from heritage issues in society: conservation, capturing, access, interpretation, and management. To tackle these real-world challenges we need integrated efforts, but as of now scholars of different disciplines work in silos, partly of the academic tradition in which career advancements are based on the results of just one discipline at a time, and partly because they lack a common language. We propose to use the language of complexity as a lingua franca and observe heritage through the lens of complexity to study emergent properties in man-heritage-landscape systems that typically have many strongly interacting players. Under the programmatic title SHIFT (Sustainable Heritage Impact Factor Theory) we aim to investigate and identify how heritage data can be distilled into knowledge, so as to support political decision making with scientific methods and evidence to reinforce the identities and values of all stakeholders.

Key words: complexity heritage; policy and decision making; local communities; government agencies; international organization
Andrea Nanetti, Siew Ann Cheong, Mei Qing / Translated by Liu Jike, Wang Yuan, Luo Man, Zhu Donghai
038 Wartime Collaboration on Preserving the Historic Monuments: Roberts Commission in China 1944-1945 Abstract: The Roberts Commission was established by US President Roosevelt during World War II with the purpose of preserving cultural properties in Allied-occupied areas in Europe. Since April 1944, the Commission started on preserving historic monuments of the Far East areas, considering the circumstances that the US Army Air Force would soon conduct strategic air bombing raids on Japan and Japan-occupied areas. Through the collaboration with Chinese scholars represented by Liang Sicheng, the Roberts Commission played an important role in preserving cultural properties and historic monuments in China towards the end of the war. By investigating the archival sources from the US National Archives, the overlooked significance of this history of the US-China scholar collaboration between 1944 and 1945 was examined. Moreover, it is argued that the wartime collaboration between American and Chinese scholars has an noticeable effect on the postwar study of Chinese archaeology, art history and architectural history in the US. Meanwhile, it also set stepping stones for postwar practice on preserving historic architecture and monuments in China.

Key words: The Roberts Commission; preservation of historic monuments; Liang Sicheng; 'China-Maps and Lists'
Zuo Lala
052 Dark Corridor in the Main House: The Evolution of Vernacular Architecture in Southern Fujian Province and Its ModernityAbstract: Based on the study of the inner corridor which is called Shenhou-Xiang behind the Taishi Wall in the main house of vernacular buildings in Southern Fujian Province from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China era, this paper represents the evolution process of this inner corridor and points out that it derived from colonial buildings in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and European architecture indirectly. The paper also analyses the reasons behind this phenomenon such as the fall of traditional etiquette, the growth of the merchantile class, and the rise of instrumental rationality in the early-modern period. Meanwhile, the paper indicates that the emergence of inner corridors also appeared in pre-modern European architecture, which bears more light of universal significance.

Key words: vernacular architecture in southern Fujian Province; traditional village; corridor; instrumental rationality
Zhang Lizhi
Heritage Illustration
060 WARFIELD COLUMN IV Architecture as a Gateway to Culture James Warfield / Translated by Pan Yue
Project Analysis
074 Sagalassos, a Case Study: Guidelines for Exploring and Presenting a Well-Remained Ancient CityAbstract: Sagalassos (SW Turkey) is one of the better preserved Classical sites in the Mediterranean. From 1985 on, it was archaeologically investigated. This included various kinds of surveys (topographical mapping, 'intensive' archaeological, geomorphological and geophysical surveys). Excavations were carried out in a multidisciplinary way (including environmental, climate and subsistence studies, crafts), which allowed approaching the monuments in a wider historical context. A main goal of the project was to conserve all finds, artefacts and buildings. Larger structures were reconstructed 'on paper'. When over 85% of their original building elements could be reused, monuments were rebuilt, developing more sophisticated approaches through the years. The protection and presentation of the site was seen as part of a programme protecting the wider natural and cultural environment. The involvement of the local population in the project and the presentation of the site and the region to visitors was seen as the best way to protect both.

Key words: Sagalassos; archaeology; site conservation; anastylosis; site presentation
Marc Waelkens / Translated by Huang Feiran, Liu Diyu
098 A Historical Study on the Timber Roof Structure of the 'Kindertrakt'Area in Hofburg, ViennaAbstract: Hofburg, located in the centre of Vienna, is the former imperial palace of Habsburg dynasty which originated from the 13th century. Together with the succeeding wars and the expansion of the empire, the extension and restoration projects of the palace lasted for centuries, which resulted in constant structural changes and reconstruction projects processed on the timber roof of Hofburg during the same period. The timber roof of the 'Kindertrakt' area, which located between the 'Schweizertrakt', the 'Leopoldinischer Trakt' and the 'Festsaaltrakt', is the result of several modifications with complex structure, which causes difficulties in detecting its original date of construction and structural type. Because of the absence of relevant documentation of the construction, the study of the 'Kindertrakt' focuses on analysing the current timber structure using a variety of research methods and technical means, and aims at revealing its original structure and the following historical alterations. The study of the 'Kindertrakt' indicates that the original timber structure should be an unusual triple Baroque roof, and examines its historical renovations and techniques of reconstruction, which offers a chance to have a further understanding of the technical development of timber roof in Baroque period and the behavior of the traditional carpenters.

Key words: Baroque roof trusses; 'Kindertrakt'; timber roof structure; construction research; building archeology
Dong Shuyin
108 Cultural Heritage Awareness Through Playing Card Games: Introduction to the Heritage Resource Preservation Playing Cards of the United StatesAbstract: The paper introduces the Heritage Resource Preservation Playing Cards invented by the Department of Defence of the United States to enhance the awareness of protecting cultural heritage and to educate the US troops about conservation during their overseas military operations. Three decks of playing cards with different local cultural and military contexts are illustrated and compared from the perspectives of general strategy, graphic design, heritage information interpretation, and approaches to public education about heritage value and conservation awareness. Its to inspiration public cultural heritage education in China is also highlighted in the discussion.

Key words: cultural heritage conservation; playing cards; public education; the United States
He Jie, Ding Yao
116 eflection on Heritage Conservation: A Review of L'allégorie du Patrimoine Li Guanghan
121 News in Brief  

 

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Recently, CCTV revealed the demolition of a Shikumen Lilong neighbourhood on the edge of a historical and cultural area, arousing considerable and constant attention among scholars, professionals, and the public. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of Jianyeli, the largest Shikumen Lilong neighbourhood in Shanghai, continues to be a hot topic on the Internet. Echoing the increasing concern for the conservation of Shikumen Lilong in Shanghai, this issue's 'Special Focus' column presents two articles to set up thematic discussions on this topic. One is 'Reflection on Shanghai Shikumen Lilong Rehabilitation' contributed by Liu Gang, an associate professor in Tongji University. This article identifies the problems of the conservation and rehabilitation of Shikumen Lilong from six aspects started from the historical and current situations. The other article is 'On the Practice of Shanghai Lilong Preservation and Rehabilitation' by Lin Yun, a senior engineer of Shanghai Zhangming Architects LP, which provides an analysis on the Lilong conservation projects carried out in Shanghai since 1978. 
 
In the 'Theory and History' column, Andrea Nanetti, vice director of the research department in the School of Art, Design and Media in Nanyang Technology University collaborated with Siew Ann Cheong, professor in NTU and Mei Qing, professor in Tongji University, to contribute with the article entitled 'Sustainable Heritage Impact Factor Theory (SHIFT): A Complexity Framework for Heritage Assessment and Planning'. In this article, the authors propose a research agenda for a new science of heritage drawing strengths based on complexity theory. This scientific method aims to build a systematic knowledge of heritage, so as to put effect on policy-making and help to form the public consensus on heritage conservation. 'Wartime Collaboration on Preserving the Historic Monuments: Roberts Commission in China 1944 – 1945' by Zuo Lala, an assistant professor at United States Naval Academy, introduces the history of the Roberts Commission which was established by the US government during World War II. Through investigating archival sources from the US National Archive, this article rediscovers the significant yet overlooked history of the US-China scholarly collaboration between 1944 and 1945. 'Dark Corridor in the Main House: The Evolution of Vernacular Architecture in Southern Fujian Province and Its Modernity' by Zhang Lizhi, a postdoctoral researcher of Architectural History in Tsinghua University, investigates the evolution of the inner corridor called Shenhou-Xiang in the main house in Southern Fujian Province. This article reveals the indirect influence of European architecture in the vernacular housing of the coastal areas of South-eastern China through the colonial architecture in the South Sea region. 
 
The theme of this issue's Warfield Column is 'Architecture as a Gateway to Culture'. With simple writing style and fresh images, the author tells the story of vernacular architecture as culture carrier, or in other words, the physical form as a reflection of the attributes of society. 
 
The 'Project Analysis' column of this issue contains three articles. First is 'Sagalassos, a Case Study: Guidelines for Exploring and Presenting a Well-Remained Ancient City' by Professor Marc Waelkens from the Catholic University of Leuven. Through an archaeological investigation in the Southwest of Turkey, the author argues for new guidelines for a more scientific and sophisticated approach to the survey, categorization, documentation and anastylosis applied for the conservation and presentation of the ancient archaeological sites. He further advances a criterion allowing for the reconstruction of ruins, should more than 85% of the original building elements be discovered. The second article is "A Historical Study on the Timber Roof Structure of the 'Kindertrakt' Area in Hofburg, Vienna" by Dong Shuying, a Ph.D candidate at the Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Technische Universität Wien. It provides a detailed empirical study of the changes of the timber roof structure of Hofburg from the 13th century to the late Renaissance and Baroque periods, and to the 18th and 19th centuries. The last article is 'Cultural Heritage Awareness Through Playing Card Games: Introduction of the Heritage Resource Preservation Playing Cards of the United States' by He Jie and Ding Yao, both associate professors at Tianjin University. This paper introduces the Heritage Resource Preservation Playing Cards used by the Department of Defense of US to enhance the awareness of heritage conservation during overseas military operations, providing a reference of enjoyable education methods for heritage conservation. 
 
Closing this issue, there is a book review by Li Guanghan, Ph.D candidate at Peking University and Program Director of Global Heritage Fund China, of the French architectural and urban historian and theorist Françoise Choay's classic book L'allégorie du Patrimoine, published in 1992. (translated by Yang Dong)
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