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2016/3 (No.3)

In the field of architectural heritage conservation, there is a rising voice which calls attention to the concept and practice of critical conservation. This trend argues that heritage conservation
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Editorial
Special Focus
001 Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered PreservationAbstract: This article traces back the changes in the theories of values in the history of preservation and finds out that values-centered planning and management emerged as a way of formalizing strategies for dealing with new preservation challenges. Dealing with more types of heritage and the various value systems they represent, values-centered preservation provides a framework for dealing holistically with particular sites. Placing high priority on cultural significance and how it changes, and technical pursuits are best seen, not as the ends of preservation, but as the means to the end of preserving a place's cultural significance. The advancement of values-centered preservation is part and parcel of the shift toward an urbanistic sort of preservation practice, toward broad social engagement, and the connection of preservation goals to society's broadest wants and needs. As society and cultural process get more complex, the means and ends of preservation, too, get more complex. While not a panacea, values-centered preservation is a way to organize this new paradigm.

Key words: values-centered preservation; site; value; place; cultural significance; stakeholders; curatorial impulse; urbanistic impulse
Randall Mason / Translated by Lu Yongyi, Pan Yue, Chen Xuan
019 City Revival by Chinese Original Architecture:The Preservation and Renovation of Zhongshan Road in HangzhouAbstract: How to realize the goal of city revival through the preservation of historic districts is an important issue for all historic cities. This article introduces the Preservation and Renovation Project of Zhongshan Road in Hangzhou regarding its guiding principles, design concepts, and the entire construction process. In this project, the existing historical buildings along Zhongshan Road were preserved by keeping the remains of different time periods and various lifestyles of the inhabitants. Rather than refurbishing the street front only, we reconstructed the Southern Song Dynasty city-block walls along Zhongshan Road and restored the Fangxiang city fabric to create the streetscape of the former Imperial Avenue. Afforested terraced teahouses were built along the road, and the original water system was restored so as to realize the atmosphere of 'a city of water'. New buildings were added by adopting local materials and vernacular building forms. The article summarizes two legacies for the preservation of historic district in a large city. One is the comprehensive project planning by research and investigation. The other is the overall design guideline for the street blocks. It also reflects on the disappointing aspects mainly resulted from time limits and the poor taste in the refurbishment of shop houses.

Key words: Hangzhou; Zhongshan Road; the Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Avenue; redesign of historical district; urban renewal; revival of city culture
Wang Shu
Theory and History
028 Conserving Living Heritage of Asia-Pacific Region in the Context of Cultural DiversityAbstract: The diversity and continuity of the cultures in the Asia-Pacific region decide the major features of the cultural heritage in this area. These features gain more and more attentions during the international campaign to conserve cultural heritage since the 1990s and influenced the emergence of some new types of cultural heritage, such as cultural landscapes. Among the features of the cultural heritage in the Asia-Pacific region, the close relations between heritage and real life, especially cultural life, is the core characteristic, and the heritages with this characteristic are named living heritage. The recognition of living heritage is a significant achievement in the development of cultural heritage conservation, and the protection of living heritage make the owners and heirs of the heritage as well as the communities play the core role in the conservation of their cultural heritage.

Key words: cultural heritage; Asia-Pacific region; living heritage; community
Lyu Zhou
040 Vernacular Architecture Studies in England Abstract: The study of vernacular architecture in England first acquired distinct form in the mid-20th century and has seldom been treated as an object worthy of historical study in itself. This paper explores the emergence of the area of study and examines the main lines of its development, noting in particular the role of institutions and legislation in fostering research, but taking account additionally of broader cultural influences such as the prolonged English love-affair with the country's rural heritage. It looks at the problematic status of the vernacular in a society characterised-from the medieval period onwards-by relatively high levels of social and economic mobility. It then attempts to isolate a series of stages in the 'legitimisation' of the vernacular, raising it from obscurity and obloquy to a position in which it is widely acknowledged as embodying cherished values of tradition, stability and regional or national identity. A discussion of the emergence of vernacular studies as a distinct intellectual field follows. Particular attention is given to the development of field-based, documentary and scientific research methodologies in the elaboration of increasingly sophisticated strategies to identify, date, analyse and interpret vernacular buildings as both material and social entities. The paper concludes that English circumstances, both historically and historiographically, are far from representative of vernacular traditions around the world; in particular that they have attracted researchers wedded in the main to historical rather than anthropological perspectives; but that the methodologies developed offer useful comparisons and pointers to those working in very different environments.

Key words: vernacular architecture; building materials; craft practices; recording methodologies; historiography; legislation and institutions
Adam Menuge / Translated by Chen Xi
054 Vernacular Architecture in the United KingdomAbstract: This paper briefly reviews the subject of vernacular architecture in the United Kingdom. It looks at what is meant by vernacular architecture. The paper concentrates on housing. It provides a brief history of the physical form of house in the UK from the Middle Ages (c.1000) to 1945. It also provides a survey of the current literature. It then looks at where future studies appear to be going and the significance of studying the subject in the 21st century. The aim is to provide a broad introduction to the form and development of housing in the UK over the last 1 000 years.

Key words: housing; vernacular architecture; timber framing; brick; stone; servicing; bibliograph
James W. P. Campbell / Translated by Pan Yiting
Heritage Illustration
068 WARFIELD COLUMN Ⅲ Natural Materials and Local Identity James Warfield / Translated by Chen Xi
Project Analysis
080 Trace Analysis of the Former Yamamoto House, A Gassho-style House in Kazura, Shirakawa VillageAbstract: In the 1880s, the former Yamamoto House was built in Kazura, Shirakawa Village. It was in the Gassho-style. This research aimed at clarification of original structure and the remolding process of the former Yamamoto House, from a survey of the materials which had been torn down and stored. Originally, there was no structure for the Buddhist altar on the floor plan, though some evidence of materials suggested that the back room on the front side was made as Buddhist altar room instead. It was also suggested that the waiting room for priests had been built with shoindukuri style next to the Buddhist altar room, in the later remodeling process. According to the analysis, the former Yamamoto House is an important building which shows the process of formation of the Buddhist altar room with the Buddhist altar structure and the shoindukuri room attached to it.

Key words: Shirakawa Village; Gassho-style; Buddhist altar; Buddhist altar room; the waiting room for priests; Shoindukuri
Matsumoto Keita, Miyazawa Satoshi / Translated by Hu Jialin, Tang Cong
098 Study on Building Technique Mnemonic Rhymes of Jianchuan Craftsman System in Northwest YunnanAbstract: The traditional architectural craftsman system in Yunnan province was divided into Jianchuan craftsman system in northwest Yunnan, and Tonghai craftsman system in south Yunnan. Nowadays, the Jianchuan craftsman system is still active in rural areas where people continue to build traditional courtyard houses in wooden frames. The Dali traditional courtyard house has a long history over hundreds of years, and to be widely used till now. There are abundant carpenter verbal stories and a large number of building mnemonic rhymes in northwest Yunnan. These stories and mnemonic rhymes are an incisive summary of the building techniques of Jianchuan craftsman system. Research on mnemonic rhymes for building traditional wood structure houses is an important conservational work, which is the timely record of Jianchuan craftsman system's intangible cultural heritage of traditional building techniques.

Key words: building technique mnemonic rhymes; Jianchuan craftsman system at northwest Yunnan; Dali traditional coutyard house; building technology; intangible cultural heritage
Bin Huizhong
108 Research on the Spatial Concepts of Bai Ethnic Minority Vernacular Dwellings: From the Perspective of the Rituals of Sacrifices to Heaven and AncestorsAbstract: Through investigation of the historical rituals of sacrifices to heaven and sacrifices to heaven and ancestors now still carried out by three lineages of Bai ethnic minority, this article analyzes the relation between the vernacular dwellings of Bai people and their traditional rituals, attempting to understand the spatial concepts presented in the vernacular dwellings.

Key words: ritual; Bai ethnic minority; vernacular dwellings; Spatial concept
Shao Lu
114 The Conservation Strategy of the Frescoes in the Chapel of Our Lady of Guia in MacaoAbstract: The frescoes from early 17th century discovered in 1996 in the Chapel of Our Lady of Guia in Macao are interior ornamentations that are rarely seen in China, and represent significant historic meanings and aesthetic values. Around 2010, damages in different forms were found and even become worse. To ensure conservation over time, two research phases are strategically planned by the manager. In the first phase, desease diagnosis and conservation plans were carried out by the interdisciplinary group from Tongji University. In this phase, architectural documentation, masonry inspection, interior environment monitoring, material testing both in situ and in laboratory were carried out, and new technologies such as hygrothermal simulation were employed, so as to propose the plan of conservational intervention. After five years of monitoring and analysis of interior environment, through multi-disciplinary cooperation, it was proved that the defects are caused mainly by tightness failure of envelope, especially high moisture in lime plaster substrate of frescoes caused by single layered roof. Based on the findings, a conservation recipe was proposed, and further research works as scope of work of conservation phase II, are proposed, which shall be started during the intervention measurements, and be used to judge the effectiveness of the works of phase I or as the basis for further corrections and improvements.

Key words: Macao; Chapel of Our Lady of Guia; conservation of frescoes; indoor climate monitoring; hygrothermal simulation; conservation strategy
Dai Shibing, Tang Zhong , Li Zhengrong, Hans-Peter Leimer
123 Modern Redux With Vernacular Pan Yue
  News in Brief  

 

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In the field of architectural heritage conservation, there is a rising voice which calls attention to the concept and practice of critical conservation. This trend argues that heritage conservation should not be an isolated academic field or a kind of independent event, nor should it be detached from the life of the cities and regions where they are located. Rather, the value of heritage exists diversely in people's mind and is reflected by it instead of existing merely in the object-in-itself. In this issue of Heritage Architecture, we select a set of articles in the 'Special Focus' and 'Theory and History' columns to address a thematic discussion on this topic.
 
The 'Special Focus' column of this issue includes two articles. One is 'Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered Preservation' by Professor Randall Mason from the University of Pennsylvania. In this article, Mason borrows the words of David Lowenthal that in modern society, the relationship with the past is not a given, but has to be constructed. Thus, historic preservation should be the urbanistic impulse in pursuit of solutions addressing broader social goals. He further points out that historic preservation should not only end at the solution of practical problems through inward technical means but also intervene in the social process through outward 'memory cultures'. In this sense, he states that 'Historic preservation is one of the deliberate ways that culture is shaped in modern society'. This article undoubtedly opens a window for us to see the future of historic preservation. 
 
The Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Wang Shu's article 'City Revival by Chinese Original Architecture' talks about the preservation and renovation project of Zhongshan Road in Hangzhou. As the chief architect of the project, Wang believes that the lively historical urban form could only exist in the collage of the old and the new. Thus, the alteration and addition of the historical buildings made in different time periods and by different groups of people should be carefully preserved even if they were often referred to as 'junk'. Regarding architectural form, Wang despises the favor for 'style revival' and fake antique, and argues for the 'coexistence of the old and the new, and harmony in diversity'. His authentic attitude towards heritage earns justification for his 'native original architecture' in both moral and professional aspects, and secures space for innovative designs.
 
This issue's 'Theory and History' contains three articles. First is 'Conserving Living Heritage of Asia-Pacific Region in the Context of Cultural Diversity' by Professor Lyu Zhou from Tsinghua University. From the perspective of the World Heritage Lists, this article reviews the Venice Charter, Burra Charter, Nara Document on Authenticity, and Hoi An Protocols, to explain the development of the concepts of cultural diversity and living heritage in Asia-Pacific region during the past few decades. This column also contains two articles on vernacular architecture in which cultural diversity is especially evident. One is 'Vernacular Architecture Studies in England' by Adam Menuge, the Course Director of M.St. in Building History in the Faculty of Architecture and History of Art at University of Cambridge. The other is 'Vernacular Architecture in the United Kingdom' by James W. P. Cambell, the Director of Studies in Architecture and History of Art at Queens' College of the University of Cambridge. Menuge's article reflects on the lessons of the 1950s' urban renewal which resulted in the demolition of many vernacular architectural heritages in British towns, while Cambell's article provides a broad outline of the 1000-year history of housing in Britain. 
 
The Warfield Column of this issue is titled 'Natural Materials and Local Identity', which provides a plain depiction of the locality of vernacular architecture. The 'Project Analysis' column of this issue features the article studying the Japanese World Heritage 'Gassho-style house in the Shiragawa Village', contributed by Matumoto Keita, an officer of Shiragawa Village, and Miyazawa Satoshi, honorary professor at Nagaoka Institute of Design. Through a large number of details derived from comprehensive archival and field studies, this article focuses on the two times of disassembling and reconstruction of the former Yamamoto House, revealing the transformation of the Gassho-style house form in time and space during the modern period. This column also contains two articles on the Bai Ethnic Minority vernacular architecture, i.e. 'Study on Building Technique Mnemonic Rhymes of Jianchuan Craftsman System in Northwest Yunnan' by Bin Huizhong, an associate professor at Shanghai University, and 'Research on the Spatial Concepts of Bai Ethnic Minority Vernacular Dwellings' by Shao Lu, lecturer at Tongji University. As to the issue that how can modern architecture express the regional characteristics and local identity of vernacular architecture, our part-time editor Pan Yue attempts to give a preliminary analysis through the review of the book Modern Architecture and the Mediterranean: Vernacular Dialogues and Contested Identities. 
 
At the end of the issue is the article on the conservation of the frescoes in the Chapel of Our Lady of Guia in Macao, contributed by Dai Shibing, Director of the Architectural Conservation Laboratory of Tongji University, and his research group. The article introduces the indoor climate monitoring and analysis, discusses the mapping methods and material pathology, and proposes an emergency conservation procedure accordingly.
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