Overall Restoration of the Former Forbidden City and the 'Safeguard Palace Museum' ProjectAbstract: The heritage of the Palace Museum consists of both the building complex and museum collection. The Palace Museum is the foremost testimony of Chinese history and the most difficult project in conservation of cultural heritage nationally. The article highlights the latest efforts of overall restoration of the former Forbidden City and the 'Safeguard Palace Museum' project; reveals the thoughts of the Palace Museum on improving the ability of cultural heritage conservation, propagation and public services; and to implement preservation of integrity and sustainability of the Palace Museum.
Key words: Palace Museum; overall restoration of the former Forbidden City; 'Safeguard Palace Museum' project
Mingtang in the Forbidden City? An Insight into Emperor Qianlong's Participation in Architectural Design Abstract: Based on reviewing the timeline and the order of building status and form of the constructions inside the Forbidden City during Emperor Qianlong's reign as well as introducing related examples, the author sets the subject on two examples, i.e. Yanchunge Pavilion in Jianfugong Garden and Fuwangge Pavilion in Ningshougong Garden, aiming at interpreting the possible motivations behind Emperor Qianlong's active participation in architectural design. The article investigates the spatial and furnishing information of the two multi-story buildings which co-existed for about 150 years in the Forbidden City and compares historical archives and building remnants of both. It finds out the similarities and shared spatial arrangements of the two buildings, which bear clear characteristics of Mingtang, a ritual hall instead of an entertaining hall.
Key words: Emperor Qianlong; the Forbidden City; Mingtang; Yanchunge Pavilion; Fuwangge Pavilion; participation in architectural design
|Theory and History|
The Contemporary Stamp of the Twenty-First Century: Article 9 of the Venice Charter ReconsideredAbstract: Historic preservationists and conservation architects are now carefully documenting, preserving, and restoring what was once considered the expression of contemporary art and architecture—Modernism. At the time that many of these buildings were being built, the manifesto for conserving and restoring historic monuments was being accepted throughout the world by conservation experts and patrimony managing agencies. In Article 9 of the Venice Charter, new treatments, such as restorations or additions to a historic resource, are to embody a 'contemporary stamp of new work'. The contemporary stamp implied a stylistic absolute—Modern Architecture. However, by the 1960's, conservation experts were questioning Modernism as the absolute expression for contemporary architecture. As we now begin to preserve the historic resources of Modernist architecture, it is time to re- define the concept of 'contemporary stamp'. To explore what is a comtemporary stamp, this essay summarizes how Modernism was first declared the 'contemporary stamp' for design interventions in historic and heritage buildings. It then poses the question of how new architectural design shall integrate with historic modernist design. Finally, this essay challenges current ideas for treatments for preserving modernist buildings and proposes that Article 9 of the Venice Charter be reexamined as performance based design begins to affect the architectural and historical character of heritage Modernist buildings.
Key words: Venice Charter; authenticity; contemporary stamp; Modernism; Post-modernism; sustainability
|Paul Hardin Kapp / Translated by Zhu Donghai|
The Approaches to Architectural Heritage in Traditional Society and Its Ideological Basis Abstract: The idea of considering buildings as heritage can be traced back to ancient times. This paper aims to analyze the ideological basis of which traditional societies treated their architectural heritage, and points out the economic constraints, spiritual-cultural connections, and social-political needs that traditional societies were encountered when approaching architectural heritage. Apart from economic consideration, traditional societies treated architectural heritage primarily as the intangible heritage. The paper reveals that the approaches to architectural heritage in traditional and modern societies are derived from different roots and for different purposes.
Key words: conservation of architectural heritage; traditional society; modern society; ideological basis; approaches to conservation
The Evolution and Characteristics of the Historic City Conservation System in RussiaAbstract: This article reviews the evolution of the system of historic city conservation in Russia, analyzes the basic characteristics and leading factors of the institution, as well as the national laws and regulations of historic city conservation. The article aims to provide experience for reference to improve and perfect the historic city conservation system of China after it was established more than 30 years ago.
Key words: historic city; conservation system; conservation list; Russia
|Li Wenmo Zhang Song|
|060||WARFIELD COLUMN II Architecture and the Land||James Warfield / Translated by Chen Xi|
The Acropolis of Athens: The Restoration Project and the Application of Advanced Technologies in Geometric Documentation Abstract: An extended restoration program has been in progress on the Athenian Acropolis Monuments since 1975. The project is carried out by the Hellenic Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports in order to confront serious problems due to natural causes (i.e. earthquakes) or human activities (i.e. fires, bombardments or earlier restorations). The interventions are imbued with the spirit of the Venice Charter and follow the principle of reversibility. Effort is placed to keep the original construction form of the monuments. New marble is used for supplements only as to ensure the structural stability of the buildings, while iron clamps and dowels are being replaced by reinforcements made of titanium. The authentic relief and sculptures are removed to the Acropolis museum and replaced by casts in artificial stone, while scattered architectural fragments recognized as belonging to the monuments are reset in their original or a corresponding position. The article also includes the results of the most recent activities in the application of advanced technologies for the documentation and graphic mapping of the Acropolis monuments, the circuit walls and the bedrock. The description focuses on the topographic and photogrammetric recording of the Acropolis and summarizes some of the photogrammetric studies already conducted by the staff of the Acropolis Restoration Service. A brief synopsis of the basic aims and the deliverables of the project 'Development of Geographic Information Systems at the Acropolis of Athens' are also included.
Key words: Acropolis; restoration; cultural heritage; photogrammetry; 3D modeling; Parthenon; Propylaia
|Vassiliki Eleftheriou Dionysia Mavromati / Translated by Chen Xi|
A Collage Heritage: Analysis on the Form and Tectonics of the City Gate Remains in Danzhou Abstract: The ancient Danzhou City was established in Tang Dynasty (622 A.D.), remodeled in early Ming Dynasty and repaired in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Now only the brick platforms of the north gate (Wuding Gate) and the west gate (Zhenyuan Gate) survive, while most of the ancient city wall and the other two gates were demolished in the late 1950s. The existing gates are the collage of parts constructed and repaired in different time periods. There were barbican-like narrow patios in the middle of both gates. The vaults of the two gates are composed of several types of arches, including corbel arches, semi-circular arches and four-centered arches, while the arch bricks were constructed in many ways, such as the longitudinal way and the side-by-side way. The brick size varied in different parts. For the variety of styles and tectonics, the two gates were unique among the ancient cities of Southern China. However, the value of the two gates has long been underestimated and lacks relevant research. Based on detailed documentation using 3D laser scanning, literature research, tectonics and form study of the city gates, dating of bricks based on TL (thermoluminescence) analysis, material composition analysis in laboratory, this research intends to find the key characteristics of the two gates. Through comparison of different types of information, the historical evolution of the gates was revealed: the gates were originally constructed in Tang Dynasty, survived over the Song and the Yuan Dynasty, remodelled in early Ming Dynasty, and changed or repaired many times from Mid-Ming to Late- Qing Dynasty, which results in a collage heritage of diffenent ages. Based on the analysis of the plinths of wooden pillars on the top of the gates, combined with a study of city gates in Southern Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces which had a close relationship with the architectural culture in Hainan, this research also conducts a pictorial restoration of the two city gate towers.
Key words: ancient city of Danzhou; city wall; form; tectonics; arch; documentation and analysis
|Chang Qing Zhang Peng Dai Shibing Zhou Le|
Considerations of a Swiss Monument Preservationist During a Visit to Traditional Villages in China: The Shaxi Rehabilitation Project as an OpportunityAbstract: The article elaborates the thoughts and recommendations from a Swiss monument preservationist's view-points towards the issues and developments of rural cultural landscapes in China, with case studies on the joint Swiss-Chinese Rehabilitation Project of Shaxi, and the traditional villages in the provinces of Guizhou and Guangxi.
Key words: Shaxi rehabilitation project; cultural landscape preservation; spatial planning; Chinese village
|Christian Renfer / Translated by Dong Yiping|
The Essence of the Sun-Mao Joints: The Logic of the Sun- Mao Joints and Conservation Practice of Shaxi's Traditional Wooden StructureAbstract: Based on the characteristics of the Sun-Mao joints (traditional Chinese mortise and tenon joints), traditional Chinese wooden structure has developed a unique tectonic culture. Although the Sun-Mao joints have a great variety and keep evolving, all these root in the basic construction logic of the Sun-Mao joints. This article discusses about the inherent law and practical values of the Sun-Mao joints through the conservation practice of Shaxi Rehabilitation Project combined with the study of the relationship between the Sun-Mao joints and building structure, as well as the materials of Sun-Mao and construction methods. The article intends to help to maintain the authenticity of the Sun-Mao joints, and convey and enhance their heritage values.
Key words: traditional wooden structure; construction logic of the Sun-Mao joints; heritage value; authenticity
|132||The People Who Are Reading Time in Shaxi||Liu Dongyang|
|138||News in Brief|
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Keeping on the columns of World Heritage and vernacular heritage projects with three articles in each, in this issue, we will see classic cases in the research and preservation of human heritage such as the Forbidden City in Beijing and the Acropolis of Athens, as well as the preservation project of the traditional village Shaxi in Yunnan province.
Shan Jixiang, Director of the Palace Museum, gave a long speech in Tongji University on the Forbidden City. This former Imperial Palace declares the broad and profound culture and the amazing historic value of the past 600 years. The good condition is largely due to the Overall Restoration of the Former Forbidden City and the 'Safeguard Palace Museum' project. In his speech, Shan introduces the features and significance of the palace complex, and the problems and solutions in the conservation project for the sustainability of the Palace in the next 600 years. The article in this issue is based on Shan's speech.
Liu Chang's article sets the subject on two examples, Yanchunge Pavilion in Jianfugong Garden and Fuwangge Pavilion in Ningshougong Garden of the Forbidden City. The relatively intact heritage architecture of the palace complex and its abundant documentary materials provide scholars with the conditions for multi-perspective research such as Liu's. Based on a review of the timeline and the order of building status of the constructions inside the Forbidden City during Emperor Qianlong's reign, Liu aims at interpreting the Emperor's deep thoughts on architectural design and his participation in the design process. Through a detailed analysis of the examples, Qianlong's design motivation and participation are discussed in depth.
While the first issue gives a retrospection on discussions about the Venice Charter, in this issue, American scholar Paul Hardin Kapp focuses on the principle of 'contemporary stamp' in Article 9 of the Venice Charter under new historical circumstances. Kapp notes that as more and more Modernist architectural heritages are preserved nowadays, the principle of 'contemporary stamp' should be reexamined. The discussions of Kapp have gone beyond the scope of cultural heritage as is defined in the Venice Charter, involving the problems in the adaptive reuse of non-heritage Modernist architecture. Further discussions could be carried out on whether it is appropriate to compare the two under similar scales, just as the understanding of the scope of cultural heritage keeps changing.
In his article, Lu Di argues that the idea of architectural conservation had existed in the traditional society long before the Enlightenment, in contrast to the generally accepted idea that the concepts and practices of modern heritage conservation are the response to the negative results from the Enlightenment Modernity. This article explores the relationship and discontinuity of the traditional and modern ideas of architectural heritage conservation, exploring the evolution of the concepts of cultural heritage.
Li Wenmo and Zhang Song give an analysis of the evolution and characteristics of the system of historic city conservation in Russia, aiming to provide a reference to the conservation system of China. As early as in the age of the Soviet Union after World War II, Russia had started the conservation of historic cities. As the largest inheritor of the resources of the Soviet Union in the post-Soviet age, Russia keeps adjusting its system of historic city conservation in response to the social upheaval.
In this issue, James Warfield contributes to the column of 'Heritage Illustration' by focusing on the relationship between architecture and the land in his personalized style. In 2013, Mr. Warfield donated more than 100,000 pictures to the library of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University. These pictures were taken by himself during the past 50 years, recording vernacular architecture all over the world.
If the Forbidden City of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing represents the climax of Chinese civilization, then the Acropolis of Athens is the icon of ancient Western civilization. In this issue, we invite Vassiliki Eleftheriou and Dionysia Mavromati to introduce in details the restoration process of the historical ruins which has a 2,500-year history. This article reviews the long process of the restoration project since 1975 by introducing the key techniques applied in the project such as the reinforcement of ruins, relocation, topography continuation, and the record and conservation of historical information.
Danzhou is an ancient city in Hainan Province that is conserved as the best one in integrity. Over the years, Chang Qing Studio of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning in Tongji University has carried out a detailed research on Danzhou as well as a conservation program approved by the national authority in charge. Significant results of the research and design are presented in this issue.
The rehabilitation project of Shaxi cooperated between China and Swiss has been carried out for 15 years, and it is time for a full discussion on the outcomes. A set of articles in this issue retrospect this rehabilitation project from varied perspectives on different aspects. Swiss scholar Christian Renfer analyzes the rehabilitation of Shaxi traditional village, explaining his insights and reflections on the project; Huang Yinwu discusses the issue of authenticity through the analysis of the logic of vernacular Sun-Mao joints as well as its application to the conservation practice of wooden structures in Shaxi; Liu Dongyang, under his pseudonym 'City Recorder', reviews Huang Yinwu's book Reading Time in Shaxi, expressing insightful thoughts and ideas. (Translated by Gu Xinyi)