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2016/1 (No.1)

'Architectural Heritage' in the modern sense is quite a new concept derived from the enlightenment modernity (abbreviated as modernity below). In the 18th and 19th centuries, when the European society started to phase out of the pre-industrial period and wished for a new and wholly rational era, how to deal with the physical remains of the past civilizations, such as architectural monuments and historic places, became an inevitable challenge. Presumably as a resistance to the radical social changes in this period, a heated debate on how to deal with the old and new districts in the city was raised among the architectural pioneers in the West. This debate lasted for more than a century, leading to the birth of modern architectural heritage conservation.

The essence of modernity lies first in the acceptance of evolutionary approach based on instrumental rationality. For this reason, the continued renewal of architecture seems a matter of course. Old buildings not suited to contemporary times should justifiably be replaced by new ones to embody the concept of material modernity in architecture. For example, in the mid-19th century, Haussmann Plan made fundamental changes to old Paris city in order to solve the political and social problems at that time. During this process over half of the old buildings built since the medieval times were removed. Such material modernization seemed as radical as the Great French Revolution happened more than half a century before at the same place. Ironically, the radical changes in Paris during this period awakened value rationality in architecture, leading to the birth of heritage conservation laws in Europe in the second half of the 19th century. From then on, drastic demolishment and reconstruction could no longer go unchecked.

A century later, the similar progression of city reconstruction took place in China. The 'curse' of material rationality swept across the country, and the radical reconstruction of the existing built areas has led to the disappearance of many historic places. However, it is worth noting that most architectural heritages conserved in Paris are earlier industrial artifacts from the Neo-classical period, whereas most historic places in the urban and rural areas of China are relics from the pre-industrial age and turned out to be too difficult to be preserved in today’s socio-economic context. Therefore, we have forever lost or been going to lose the local diversity of historical environment and 'native feeling' (F. L. Wright). Here lie three vital problems that we Chinese professionals need to encounter together. The first is how many heritages can we retain during the radical urban development? The second is how many today’s architecture could be turned into tomorrow’s architectural heritage? And the third is could today’s architecture preserve any identity of the time and place? In effect, all these issues are vital to the ‘soft power’ of a society.
Since the advent of the new millennium, the spread of globalization and urbanization has dissolved regional cultural differences with a higher speed and endangered local traditions to a greater extent. Yet the desire for local identity and heritage conservation is also becoming stronger all over the world. In China, we are happy to see that architectural conservation has gradually been accepted by the public, and has become one of the social values and moral doctrines. More importantly, people start to realize that many historic architecture and places are still in use in our daily life, and the purpose of architectural conservation is to efficiently control change rather than to restrain development. In this sense, conservation is composed of two equally important aspects. One is preservation which means keeping the original historic artifacts. The other is continuation which means the essential spatial addition to the preserved historic artifacts in order to achieve regeneration. Here regeneration refers to ‘revitalization’ or ‘adaptive reuse’ rebased on preservation and continuation. Thus, architectural heritage conservation should not be treated separately, but should be put in the context of regional economic and social development.

The history of architectural heritage research can be traced back to more than 80 years ago when Zhu Qiqian established the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture in 1930. Zhu’s research contributed to the discipline of Chinese architectural history established by Liang Sicheng and Liu Dunzhen and provided the academic foundation for the preservation and renovation of traditional architectural heritage. However, considering the socio-political atmosphere of the 1930s, the aim of their research is to organize, evaluate, and chronicle the historical documents and material remains in order to search for the national identity through architectural vocabulary. This led to a prolonged debate between traditional styles and modern styles lasted for several decades, whils
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Editorial
Remarks on the First Issue
001 Wu Liangyong  
002 Luo Xiaowei  
003 Fu Xi'nian  
Special Focus
004 Present Challenges in the Conservation Doctrine and Related Training Abstract: This article briefly introduces the development of the conservation doctrine and methodology after the Second World War: the recognition of heritage resources has been evaluated gradually, ranging from monuments and archaeological sites to historic urban centres and cultural landscapes. Meanwhile, the processes of conservation have become part of the development of communities and related heritage resources. So heritage community has become particularly important following the trends and needs in society. Taking into account the increasingly diverse range of stakeholders, training of specialists needs to be integrated with a more general capacity building strategy. Finally, this article explores the new challenges relating to the general globalising world context, which has the tendency to 'flatten' and standardise local ways of life, and the conservation strategies which should be adopted in response to the challenges.

Key words: conservation doctrine; training in historic preservation; heritage community
Jukka Jokilehto / Translated by Chen Xi
010 Architectural Heritage Conservation in Shanghai and Its ReflectionAbstract: Since last 30 years' investigation for the conservation of the architectural heritage in Shanghai, a preliminary system for classification and gradation is set up, and the authorized institution has also been established. During the course of conservation, according to the actual situation of the historical architecture in Shanghai, different methodologies and models have been investigated and conducted in restoration, adding, shifting, enlargement and reconstruction, etc. In 2002, The Legislation for the Conservation of Historical Areas and Heritage Architecture in Shanghai was issued by the Shanghai Municipal Government, which formed the conservation system consisting of the authority, academic institution, design institution and construction company. The conservation of architectural heritage in Shanghai has undergone three phases: the initiative phase, the experimental phase; and the ongoing deepening conservation phase. Due to the differences in cultural heritage, administrative system, legislation and codes, building technology, and building materials, etc., and also due to the historical situation, there must be a special system for the conservation of architectural heritage in Shanghai.

Key words: Shanghai; historic architecture; conservation methodology and model; architectural heritage; stylistic restoration; protective restoration
Zheng Shiling
024 A Study of Pingge Drawings from the Yangshilei Archives: Architectural Design Concept and Method in the Qing Dynasty of China Abstract: Using the Pingge (modular grid) drawings preserved in the Yangshilei Archives, this article investigates the design and construction process of the imperial architecture of the Qing Dynasty in terms of site selection, general layout, and construction, revealing the process, concept and method in the design of traditional Chinese architecture. It finds out that Pingge had a deep root in traditional Chinese culture, and had been a very important method in the design of Chinese traditional architecture.

Key words: Yangshilei; Pingge; Chinese architectural history; planning; Jili-Huafang
Wang Qiheng / Edited by the Editorial Office
Theory and History
034 On the 50th Anniversary of the Venice Charter

Abstract: This article reviews the debates in the field of conservation emerged from the Venice Charter since 1964 in Italy. Starting from ICOMOS heritage 'Paradigm Shift' problem, the author concisely retraces some of the most important events and documents in the context of Italian conservation from an international perspective. The author explains how and why the conditions and the ideas about conservation have been developed in the school of architecture in Milan during the past 50 years. The characteristics of Italian mode in conservation are also represented in the text.

Key words: Venice Charter; Italian Charters on Restoration; Italian culture of conservation
Carolina Di Biase / Translated by Shu Changxue
044 Reflection on the Fundamental Category of Heritage ArchitectureAbstract: Based on the author's reflection on the theory and practice of architectural preservation and restoration, this article systematically reviews the fundamental category of architectural heritage regarding its major themes, latest debates, and the different contexts between China and the Occident. In particular, it analyzes the disputable definitions of the basic concepts of architectural conservation, the multiple criteria of evaluation, the contradiction in preservation and restoration, and the characteristics of Chinese historical architecture and its tradition of building restoration. The article ends with a discussion of the transformation and rebirth of the historic city from a comparative perspective between China and the West.

Key words: heritage architecture; preservation; restoration; rebirth
Chang Qing
Heritage Illustration
062 WARFIELD COLUMN I Value in the Vernacular James Warfield / Translated by Chen Xi
Project Analysis
074 Shedding Load to Retain Authenticity: The Study of Interventional Conservation of Yingxian Wooden Pagoda

Abstract: The values of the Yingxian Wooden Pagoda can be viewed from three aspects: the building technology, the architectural form, the historical and cultural meaning. All these aspects lie in the authenticity of the Pagoda itself. Through an analysis of the defects of the Pagoda and the causes of such defects, we find that the damage to the wooden parts of the Pagoda is caused by its weak wooden structure, particularly its insufficient compressive strength. Based on the principles of authenticity, necessity, reversibility, and identifiability, we propose the addition of a freestanding steel framing between the internal and external colonnades of the Pagoda. Details of structure reinforcement and maintenance are elaborated in the article.

Key words: Yingxian Wooden Pagoda; heritage conservation; interventional conservation; authenticity; reversibility; steel framing
Wang Ruizhu, etc. / Edited by the Editorial Office
088 Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris: History and Methodology of Conservation Abstract: This article introduces briefly the features and the construction history of the Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris, which is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. It reviews the conservation or the so-called 'restoration' history of this cathedral, illustrates the conservation methodology in France that is derived from the work of Viollet-le-Duc, and demonstrates the progress from the creation of the Department of Historic Monuments to the establishment of the integrated system of supervision and research institutions. This article also summarizes the development of conservation technology during the past two centuries.

Key words: Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris; restoration; conservation
Benjamin Mouton / Translated by Chen Xi, Zhang Peng
100 From Chau Say Tevoda to Ta Keo: Conservation and Restoration of the Angkor MonumentsAbstract: Listed as a World Cultural Heritage site, the architectural monuments in Angkor are invaluable representations of architectural culture in Asia. However, many of these monuments are at risk because of a series of social upheavals and long-term natural weathering and thus require urgent conservation. As a member of the World Heritage Convention, China has been actively participating in the Angkor conservation projects along with other international agencies. This article reviews the two major projects that we have conducted in the past 10 years: the Chau Say Tevoda and the Ta Keo. A sophisticated institution for architectural preservation has been formed during this period, in terms of preliminary research, building surveys, laboratory tests, design plans, and project implementation.

Key words: Angkor; Chau Say Tevoda; Ta Keo
Hou Weidong
110 A Cultural Heritage Preservation Project in Republican China: Preservation of the Ancient Statues in Baosheng Temple, LuzhiAbstract: The statues lining the walls of the main hall of the Baosheng Temple in Luzhi, Suzhou, are invaluable treasures in the history of sculpture in China. These statues have been well preserved because of the preservation project undertaken in the Republican period with the active participation of various social groups. Using comprehensive historical documents, this article reviews the history and process of the preservation project and thus provides a useful reference for today's architectural preservation projects.

Key words: heritage preservation;Baosheng Temple; sculpture;Republican China
Zhang Shiqing
122 Experimental Study on the Diagnosis and Restoration of the Rammed Earth Surface of the Pingyao City WallAbstract: The Pingyao City Wall has been reinforced and restored many times in the past few decades, but accidents are still frequently reported. Laboratory tests show that the loess used as main construction material for the Pingyao City Wall has poor water resistance. Site inspections further reveal that the cracks paralleling and crossing the wall are the main cause of water seepage. Among the various surface strengthening technologies, rammed earth surface proves to be the most effective. In 2007, a laboratory test was conducted on a mock- up surface of approximately 30 m2 which was equipped with a comprehensive drainage system and possessed high durability because of the refined lime consolidation. Quality assessment carried out in 2011 revealed that similar to the result in the laboratory test, the new rammed earth surface can effectively protect the wall. The restoration of the endangered part of the city wall was carried out in 2012. Nonetheless, such problems have no permanent solution because of constantly changing natural forces. Refined techniques, regular monitoring, and timely maintenance are necessary to ensure the good condition of the city wall.

Key words: Pingyao; city wall; rammed earth construction; lime consolidation; structural consolidation; repair by ram
Dai Shibing, Li Hongsong
130 News in Brief  

 

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'Architectural Heritage' in the modern sense is quite a new concept derived from the enlightenment modernity (abbreviated as modernity below). In the 18th and 19th centuries, when the European society started to phase out of the pre-industrial period and wished for a new and wholly rational era, how to deal with the physical remains of the past civilizations, such as architectural monuments and historic places, became an inevitable challenge. Presumably as a resistance to the radical social changes in this period, a heated debate on how to deal with the old and new districts in the city was raised among the architectural pioneers in the West. This debate lasted for more than a century, leading to the birth of modern architectural heritage conservation.
 
The essence of modernity lies first in the acceptance of evolutionary approach based on instrumental rationality. For this reason, the continued renewal of architecture seems a matter of course. Old buildings not suited to contemporary times should justifiably be replaced by new ones to embody the concept of material modernity in architecture. For example, in the mid-19th century, Haussmann Plan made fundamental changes to old Paris city in order to solve the political and social problems at that time. During this process over half of the old buildings built since the medieval times were removed. Such material modernization seemed as radical as the Great French Revolution happened more than half a century before at the same place. Ironically, the radical changes in Paris during this period awakened value rationality in architecture, leading to the birth of heritage conservation laws in Europe in the second half of the 19th century. From then on, drastic demolishment and reconstruction could no longer go unchecked.
 
A century later, the similar progression of city reconstruction took place in China. The 'curse' of material rationality swept across the country, and the radical reconstruction of the existing built areas has led to the disappearance of many historic places. However, it is worth noting that most architectural heritages conserved in Paris are earlier industrial artifacts from the Neo-classical period, whereas most historic places in the urban and rural areas of China are relics from the pre-industrial age and turned out to be too difficult to be preserved in today’s socio-economic context. Therefore, we have forever lost or been going to lose the local diversity of historical environment and 'native feeling' (F. L. Wright). Here lie three vital problems that we Chinese professionals need to encounter together. The first is how many heritages can we retain during the radical urban development? The second is how many today’s architecture could be turned into tomorrow’s architectural heritage? And the third is could today’s architecture preserve any identity of the time and place? In effect, all these issues are vital to the ‘soft power’ of a society.
Since the advent of the new millennium, the spread of globalization and urbanization has dissolved regional cultural differences with a higher speed and endangered local traditions to a greater extent. Yet the desire for local identity and heritage conservation is also becoming stronger all over the world. In China, we are happy to see that architectural conservation has gradually been accepted by the public, and has become one of the social values and moral doctrines. More importantly, people start to realize that many historic architecture and places are still in use in our daily life, and the purpose of architectural conservation is to efficiently control change rather than to restrain development. In this sense, conservation is composed of two equally important aspects. One is preservation which means keeping the original historic artifacts. The other is continuation which means the essential spatial addition to the preserved historic artifacts in order to achieve regeneration. Here regeneration refers to ‘revitalization’ or ‘adaptive reuse’ rebased on preservation and continuation. Thus, architectural heritage conservation should not be treated separately, but should be put in the context of regional economic and social development.
 
The history of architectural heritage research can be traced back to more than 80 years ago when Zhu Qiqian established the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture in 1930. Zhu’s research contributed to the discipline of Chinese architectural history established by Liang Sicheng and Liu Dunzhen and provided the academic foundation for the preservation and renovation of traditional architectural heritage. However, considering the socio-political atmosphere of the 1930s, the aim of their research is to organize, evaluate, and chronicle the historical documents and material remains in order to search for the national identity through architectural vocabulary. This led to a prolonged debate between traditional styles and modern styles lasted for several decades, whilst the value evaluation of architectural heritage and the relationship between preservation and continuation have been neglected for a long time.
 
In general, architectural heritage conservation in the light of modern cultural heritage theories, research methods, and conservation systems is still in its initial stage in China. But the need for academic research and practical experiments is apparently urgent, which calls for the establishment of an interdisciplinary and international platform to promote effective communication among scholars and professionals. Heritage Architecture, which is the first comprehensive magazine on architectural conservation in China, is released in response to such academic and professional needs. The first issue has undertaken eight long years of careful preparation and has received support from a number of people and organizations from both home and abroad. Its publication marks a watershed in the development of architectural heritage conservation in China. The magazine will present the leading theories and experimental cases of architectural conservation in a dialectic approach to history and from a glocal perspective. It aims to improve the overall professional level of architectural conservation in China, attract more public attention to architectural heritage conservation, and contribute to the balance of economic development and cultural prosperity in the urban and rural areas in China. (translated by Chen Chen and Li Yingchun)
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