On the Invention of Urban Built Heritage Concept in Europe and Its Reference Significance for ChinaAbstract: This article looks back the origin and development of the concepts of urban heritage and built heritage in Europe. It systematically collates the inherent reasons and evolving meaning of the concept of built heritage, beginning with the invention of the concept ‘urban heritage’ by Gustavo Giovannoni, following by the integrated conservation in the European cities, and ending with the new concepts of ‘heritage by appropriation’ and ‘urban fragment’ proposed in the Sustainable Development of Urban Historical Areas through an Active Integration within Towns (SUIT, 2014). Furthermore, the article reflects and delineates the integral concept of urban built heritage conservation, revealing the consistency between urban built heritage conservation and sustainable development. The article concludes with an analysis of the divergent understandings of urban heritage conservation in China and Europe, pointing out the reference significance and lessons that we can draw from the European experience.
Key words: built heritage; heritage by appropriation; urban fragment; active conservation
Greater Paris: A Territory Between Recycling and HeritageAbstract: The north-east periphery of Paris is at the heart of the ‘Grand Paris’ project. This territory, built by a recent urban spreading of industrial buildings and social housing during the last 150 years, stayed out from the development of the city centre. Its intense transformation since the Second World War has produced an important deposit of urban and architectural built production of the 20th century. This article proposes to focus on two examples from the north-east Parisian periphery: the quarter ‘La Muette’ in Drancy, which appears as a very symbolic heritage between memory and history; and ‘Les Courtillères’ in Pantin, where cultural recognition meets the needs of improvements for inhabitants. Both are collective housing and real urban quarters in the city: they demonstrate how the public and inhabitants integrate with the debate of heritage acknowledgement.
Key words: Greater Paris; 20th century built heritage; urban heritage; periphery; suburb
|Bruno Mengoli / Translated by Song Huan, Tang Siyuan, Pan Yiting / Proofread by Liu Yuting, Gu Xinyi|
|Theory and History|
Towards the ‘Post-Historical and Cultural City Era’: Exploring the Systematic Construction of Historic Urban AreasAbstract: In the fast process of industrialisation and urbanisation, the Famous Historical and Cultural Cities in China are involved in a process of rapid urban construction, which bears the conflict between conservation and development. On the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the implementation of the National Famous Historical and Cultural City conservation system in China, we find that the cities we are now encountering are no longer the same ones they used to be. Large-scale old city redevelopment has left pieces of historic fragments against the fast-growing modern cities, calling for a rethinking of the meaning, aim, content, and method of urban heritage conservation. In this context, this paper proposes the term ‘Post-Historical and Cultural City Era’, addressing the problems caused by the increasingly scattered and blurred Historic Urban Areas. Based on the concepts of integrated conservation and authenticity, the paper points out the city’s mode of existence and its conservation values. It then goes on with a study of the role that ‘substitutional elements’ play on the control of the integral form of Historic Urban Areas, reflecting on the long-standing conservation methods featured as ‘object conservation’ and ‘major architecture conservation’. Based on a theoretical reflection, the paper further takes Ningbo as an example to explore a ‘systematic construction’ of its Historic Urban Area in the context of contemporary urban settings. The historical information scattered in the city is correlated and reorganised as an entity from the centre to the periphery, from nodes to tracks, and from enclosed space to open space, making the city live on as a part of the historical context.
Key words: Famous Historical and Cultural City; Historic Urban Area; integrated conservation; systematic construction
A Historical Observation and Discussion on the Bologna’s Practice of Integrated ConservationAbstract: Integrated conservation is the core principle of urban conservation which was originated from the conservation of the historic centre of Bologna in the 1970s, and is called the Bologna Mode. The paper analyses its emergence, conceptualisation, process and the lessons learned from its experience, and points out five aspects constituting the practice: local government and public authorities as the principal executor, public funding as the financial resource, public housing policy as the implementing tool, planning and designing projects as technical solutions, and direct public intervention and active community participation as implementing means. The paper contends that the integrated conservation and Bologna practice have three values: the overall physical conservation of historic centre, social conservation for maintaining the social structure, vitality and justice, and the realisation of a balanced development between old and new urban areas. Although the Bologna practice was exceptional in the context of the 1960s and the 1970s, its historical contributions lie in the invention of integrated conservation theory and its application, particularly the placement of residents as the core in conservation works, the conservation solutions oriented by integrated urban development, and the active attitudes and capabilities of local authorities in carrying out public intervention.
Key words: integrated conservation; Bologna practice; historic centre
|Yao Yifeng, Na Ziye|
Transition of the ‘Capital City of Water’: The History of Wuzhou and Its Flood Adaptive MeasuresAbstract: This article introduces two types of measures against floods: the flood control measures and the flood adaptive measures. The former intends to prevent floods from overflowing by using the construction of dykes, dams, reservoirs, and other engineering projects, the feature of which is to change the motion rule of floods artificially. By contrast, the latter lets people adapt to flooding circumstances and achieve the purpose of controlling flood or avoiding flood disasters, the feature of which is not to change the movement rule of floods but to actively adapt to flooding environment. By taking the Qiloucheng of Wuzhou in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region as an example of city adaptive to flooding circumstance, the article looks back Wuzhou’s rise-up as a waterfront city and its history of urban development in both ancient and modern times. It further discusses its urban flood disasters and the measures against flooding in the ancient and modern times, focusing on the flood adaptive measures developed in the modern time, as well as the problems that the measures encountered nowadays.
Key words: historic city; flood control measures; flood adaptive measures; Wuzhou; Qiloucheng
|056||WARFIELD COLUMN VII A Case Study in Vernacular Icons||James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi|
Re-considering the Cultural Heritage of Jinan as the City of Springs from the Perspective of Cultural Landscape Abstract: The concept of cultural landscape emphasises the long-standing interactions between nature and man and the relevance of their evolutions to each other, highlighting an important precondition that heritage is a common creation by both nature and man. As a well-known ‘City of Springs’ due to a great wealth of springs distributed within the city, Jinan’s natural and cultural properties related to springs are the city’s important and indispensable resources. A proper assessment of the value of these resources provides an important basis for comprehensive conservation and utilisation of them. Rather than interpreting the cultural heritage of springs in Jinan from the commonly—adopted natural or scenic perspectives, this article employs a new approach focusing on the old city’s cold spring utilisation system. It attempts to explore the geographic and geological reasons in shaping the spring properties of Jinan, the interactions between natural environment and human beings, and the resulting cultural traditions and landscape features. It puts forward that this system represents a unique type of spring resource utilisation system in China and the world as well, and provides important references for human practices to show respect to nature, use natural resources reasonably, and achieve sustainable development today.
Keywords: cultural landscape; Jinan Quancheng; ancient city cold spring utilization system
|Zhang Jie, Yan Zhao, Huo Xiaowei|
Qufu Ming City: The Attributes of the Values and Its Mode of Conservation and DevelopmentAbstract: Qufu is a National Famous Historical and Cultural City of China and was the capital city of Ancient Lu Kingdom. Known as the birthplace of Confucius and his ideological system, Qufu is also called the ‘Oriental Sacred City’. Qufu Ming City was built to protect the Temple of Confucius at the beginning of the 16th century, which bears unique city pattern and cultural characteristics. Meanwhile, Qufu Ming City is still a living city which has more than 10 000 residences and multiple functions such as residence, education, commerce and tourism. This article attempts to interpret the attributes of the values of Qufu Ming City in the aspects of its natural setting, historical evolution, spatial characteristics and humanistic tradition. It further highlights the significance of integrated conservation and harmonious development of the city.
Key words: Qufu Ming City; living heritage; attributes of values; integrated conservation; harmonious development
City Pattern Analysis and Integrated Conservation of the Historic Urban Area: A Case Study of QiqiharAbstract: The Historic Urban Area’s city pattern analysis and conservation are an important part of the conservation planning of the Famous Historical and Cultural City in China. However, a systematic analysing approach is still absent in practice. In effect, a systematic, comprehensive and reliable analysis of the historic city pattern is vital to achieving the integrity of the conservation content and the pertinence of the conservation measures, influencing the presentation of historical value and the overall effect of conservation. By taking the Historic Urban Area of Qiqihar as an example, this article adopts the analysis methods and technical means such as history layering, historical pattern deduction, and historical maps comparison to try to explore the internal logic of the city pattern evolution and summarise its features. The study aims to play a supporting role in the assessment of the historical value and the determination of the conservation content of the Famous Historical and Cultural City.
Key words: Famous Historical and Cultural City; Historic Urban Area; city pattern; evolution analysis; conservation
The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas (Adopted by the 17th ICOMOS General Assembly on 28 November, 2011)Abstract: The Valletta Principles on the Maintenance and Management of Historic Towns and Cities ("Valletta Principles"), approved and promulgated by the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) in 2011, is intended to replace 24 years ago. The Washington Charter (the Charter for Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas, 1987, referred to as Washington Charter) is another epoch-making document in the field of historical towns and urban protection. In 2012, the International Historical Towns and Villages Committee of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS-CIVVIH) published the Chinese translation of the Valletta Principles in Athens, but the meaning of the translation is large and there are many clerical errors. Mistranslation. For example, "non-renewable resources" are translated as "non-renewable voluntary" and "rehabilitation" is translated as "reset", which means "these aspects must be considered indivisible" (the Two must be considered inseparable) translated into the exact opposite meaning: "The two must be considered separately", and so on. In addition, this Chinese translation has some translations of professional terms that do not conform to industry standards, such as translating “monument” into “monument” or “ruins” rather than “historic sites”; translating “site” into “historic monuments” Not “ruins”; translate “intervention” into “intervention” rather than “intervention”; translate “open spaces” into “empty space” or “open space” rather than “open space”. In order to avoid misunderstanding of such important charter documents in the field of domestic urban protection, it is necessary to re-translate. This retranslation is based on the English version and related explanations published by ICOMOS-CIVVIH. At the same time, in order to determine the mutual modification relationship of some sentence components, the French version is referenced and some necessary comments are added.
Key words: the Valletta Principles; historic cities, towns and urban areas; safeguard; management
|Translated and annotated by Lu Di / Proofread by Gu Xinyi|
|112||News in Brief|
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The central theme of this issue is the research and practice of the conservation of urban heritage, which is a vital component of built heritage.
In the ‘Special Focus’ column, this issue presents Zhang Song’s recent work ‘On the Invention of Urban Built Heritage Concept in Europe and Its Reference Significance for China’. This article comprehensively introduces and deeply interprets the theory and practice of urban heritage conservation and the sustainable development of the historic environment since the Haussmann Plan of Paris in the mid-19th century, especially focusing on the period from the invention of the term ‘urban heritage’ by Gustavo Giovannoni to the proposal of ‘built vernacular heritage’ in the 12th ICOMOS Conference. This process has been generated, led and advanced primarily by the invention of the core concept of the conservation object. From the perspective of urban revitalisation, the article also sets up the discussion on the relationship between built heritage conservation and organic urban renewal.
This column also presents the French scholar Bruno Mengoli’s article ‘Greater Paris: A Territory Between Recycling and Heritage’. Through the case study of two residential quarters built in the 20th century in terms of their construction and alteration, the article discusses the cultural, technological and economic adaptive problems encountered in the conservation practice of modern urban built heritage, revealing the contradictions between urban renewal and the conservation of modern built heritage, and suggesting the possible solutions as well. The author points out that the conservation of modern heritage should put more emphasis on usage, arguing that ‘Conservation as museum, empty of inhabitants, are hardly bearable: a so recent patrimony hasn't won its rights to retreat and needs a use to survive!’
In the ‘Theory and History’ column, He Yi’s article ‘Towards the “Post-Historical and Cultural City Era”: Exploring the Systematic Construction of Historic Urban Areas’ puts forward that the urbanisation in China in the last 30 years have made the state policy of “National Famous Historical and Cultural City” conservation launched in the early1980s completely invalid. Many historic cities have only been left with fragments and the original historic city conservation has to be reduced to ‘historical and cultural area’ conservation, marking the entering of the ‘Post-Historical and Cultural City Era’. By taking the integrated conservation of the Ningbo Historic Urban Area as a case study, the article proposes four planning strategies for a ‘systematic construction’ of the historical information scattered in the old town, including ‘linkage’, ‘fabrication’, ‘assemblage’, and ‘bridging’ , to make the city live on as a part of the historical context. Following this article, Yao Yifeng and Na Ziye’s article ‘A Historical Observation and Discussion on the Bologna’s Practice of Integrated Conservation’ introduces and evaluates the experience of Bologna, Italy, where the concept of ‘historic centre conservation’ was extended to the entire historic town. This column also presents Wu Qingzhou’s article ‘Transition of the “Capital City of Water”: The History of Wuzhou and Its Flood Adaptive Measures’, which from the viewpoint of the technological history of city construction, briefly introduces the history of Wuzhou city as a typical example of passive flood control in ancient China and the flood adaptive measures of its Qiloucheng developed in the early modern time.
The subject of this issue’s Warfield Column is ‘A Case Study in Vernacular Icon’, in which the European traditional windmills and waterwheels are recorded coupled with the lives of the local farmers as their users. The author believes that ‘They represent the harvest of their labour, the food of life. They are community symbols of productivity and livelihood.’
The ‘Project Analysis’ column presents three articles on the practice of urban built heritage conservation. Zhang Jie, Yan Zhao and Huo Xiaowei’s article ‘Re-considering the Cultural Heritage of Jinan as the City of Springs from the Perspective of Cultural Landscape’ introduces the reasons for changing the category of the Spring City of Jinan from ‘natural and cultural mixed heritage’ to ‘cultural landscape’ in the application of World Heritage Sites and the process of re-considering its heritage values, concluding that Jinan’s spring cultural landscape is primarily composed of the ‘old city’s cold spring utilisation system’. Shao Yong’s article ‘Qufu Ming City: The Attributes of the Values and Its Mode of Conservation and Development’ illustrates the evolving historical process, cultural characteristics and value assessment of Qufu Ming City, and proposes a harmonious development mode for this famous old town. Yang Kai’s article ‘City Pattern Analysis and Integrated Conservation of the Historic Urban Area: A Case Study of Qiqihar’ tends to take the practice of Qiqihar as a case study for the conservation of the National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities. It brings forwards the research method for the analysis of the Historic Urban Areas’ city pattern evolution, suggesting an identification system for the integrated conservation of city pattern as well as its construction method.
Closing this issue, there is the elaborate translation and annotation of ‘The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas’ contributed by Lu Di. This document was first published in the 17th ICOMOS General Assembly in 2011 and could be regarded as the substitution of the Washington Charter. The new Chinese version correlates and clarifies the problems and errors in the former translation of this important international document. (translated by Li Yingchun)