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2017/4 (No.8)

With the coming end of 2017, a total number of eight issues have been published since Heritage Architecture was launched two years ago.
Special Focus
001 An Italian Contribution to Architectural RestorationAbstract: The essay provides an up-to-date review of the realities of Italian restoration from six aspects. Restoration is carried out on the original, with all the attendant risks of error and damage, and thus with all the prudence that is demanded. One of the recent definitions of restoration is put forward: restoration means any intervention that has the aim of conserving and transmitting to the future works of historical, artistic and environmental interest, facilitating the reading of them while not erasing the traces of the passage of time; and it is a critical hypothesis and a proposition that is always modifiable, without it ever altering irreversibly the original. The true nature of restoration is a complete fusion of historical and technical–scientific expertise. It is therefore artificial to distinguish between a ‘project of consolidation’ and a truly described restoration project. So the paper stresses research methodology, the project and specific skills. As part of the principle of unity of methods in restoration, interdisciplinarity is viewed as the principal tool for bringing together consistently and fully the different skills necessary for the study and conservation of monuments. In summary, there are three fundamental components: the history of architecture and theory of restoration; the techniques of survey, analysis, diagnosis and intervention on the materials and the structure; and the legislative and regulatory aspects. The author emphasises the link between restoration and access to the monumental heritage. The definition of restoration as ‘an act of culture’ (fundamentally critical–historical and technical–scientific) leads to the reflection that culture is, by definition, exchange, communication, and opening up to people without distinction.

Key words: restoration; interdisciplinarity; monumental heritage; Italy
Giovanni Carbonara / Translated by Zhu Guangya, Yang Tianchi / Proofread by Yang Hui / Postscript by Zhu Guangya, Yang Hui
016 The Architectural Restoration Course: Research and DesignAbstract: Architectural restoration and architectural design have no essential differences but are instead different forms of the ‘formation’ (formatività) of architectures under different circumstances. Therefore, architectural restoration is not a purely technical discipline that does not engage theoretical criticism. This paper introduces the specific steps of research and design in the architectural restoration laboratories of some Italian universities. It clarifies the process by which architectural restoration courses guide students to carry out solid historical research, undertake technical and theoretical research on construction, and finally transform such understanding into architectural design. This makes the course the key step in the cultivation of young architects. The overall cultivation of the conception of history as well as the research and design abilities of students with real cases is the essence to carry out restoration course in the architecture major.

Key words: restoration; architect education; historical–critical; traditional construction technique; lacuna; reintegration; text
Riccardo Dalla Negra / Translated by Tian Yang, Li Yue
029 A Review of the World Heritage Sites Inscription Courses of China and ItalyAbstract: By the end of July 2017, Italy sits at the top of the list of countries with UNESCO World Heritage sites with 53 such locations, and China closely follows with 52. Historically, China and Italy were two great nations on the ancient Silk Road, which bridged the East and the West. The two nations’ abundant heritage of yesterday has turned into the generous treasure of today, and their great contributions to human society have been widely recognised by the international community. Although the amount of World Heritage sites they each have may be similar, the inscription processes are very different. This article makes a chronological comparison of the courses the two nations have undergone for World Heritage sites, and analyses the periodical performance, constitutive categories, geographic location and cultural relevancy of their World Heritage sites. The article particularly notes the similarities and differences between the two nations in the competition for the inscription of World Heritage. It attempts to enhance the understanding of China’s World Heritage sites, strengthen the conservation of World Heritage sites and promote China to play a greater role in the World Heritage community.

Key words: China; Italy; World Heritage site; category; distribution; relevancy; comparison
Liu Lin’an / Shan Chao
Theory and History
037 Reconstruction or Re-creation: From the German Pavilion to the Barcelona PavilionAbstract: The German Pavilion in Barcelona designed by Mies Van der Rohe for the 1929 Barcelona International Expo is one of the most important works in the history of world architecture. For various reasons, the original pavilion only existed for six months and was demolished afterwards. In 1986, it was reconstructed under the auspices of the government of Barcelona. Through a brief review of the reconstruction history of the Pavilion and by focusing on the tectonic issues, this article compares the similarities and differences between the German Pavilion in 1929 and the Barcelona Pavilion in 1986, analyses the underlying logic and reasons, and concludes with a discussion on the significance of the reconstruction work.

Key words: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the German Pavilion in Barcelona; Barcelona Pavilion; reconstruction; tectonic; Villa Tugendhat; the golf club project in Krefeld
Gao Changjun, Li Xiangning
052 Rotonde de la Villette: Typological Vagueness and Its EvolutionAbstract: The Rotonde de la Villette is one of the remaining buildings from the Paris tollgates projects erected at the end of the 18th century. It stands as one of the most typical works of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux before the French Revolution and demonstrates typological eclecticism and vagueness in the relationship between classic and modern, form and function as well as space and structure. Through a detailed analysis of the Paris tollgates project, the Rotonde de la Villette, and the building’s changes through history, this article seeks to shed light on the complexity and vagueness in architectural design during the time of the Enlightenment.

Key words: vagueness; modernity; type; French Revolution
Chen Dijia
Heritage Illustration
056 WARFIELD COLUMN VIII Symbols of Livelihood: An Architecture of Sustenance James Warfield / Translated by Pan Yue
Project Analysis
080 An Overview of Bai Miao Tu: The Settings of Everyday Life in Miao Dwellings in the Qing Dynasty Abstract: The study of the Miao people is currently a hot topic, but systematic research on their living conditions and architectural images dating from the Qing Dynasty or even earlier are almost absent. Therefore, the study of the historical living conditions represented in Bai Miao Tu (Atlas of Miaos) created during the bureaucratisation of native officers in the 18th century and reproduced in the following 150 years is particularly necessary. In this article, multidisciplinary methods such as philology, iconography, ethnography and folklore studies are applied for the analysis of Bai Miao Tu. Thousands of images and texts are categorised, and the diversity of Miao architectural culture is analysed systematically from different angles, such as the comparison of ancient and modern images, geographical distribution, and ethnic relations. This article attempts to clarify the origins and development of Miao people’s lifestyle and reconstruct their historical living conditions, so as to provide a research base for synchronic fieldworks in the future.

Key words: Bai Miao Tu series; the Miao nationality in the Qing Dynasty; information of architectural settings; scenes of everyday life in the ancient and modern times
Tang Shikuang
098 The Immaterial Building Craftsmanship of Vernacular Architecture and Its Inheritance: A Case Study of the Naxi AreaAbstract: The immaterial building craftsmanship of vernacular architecture is carried by local craftsmen and manifested and inherited through practice. In vernacular society, the ‘building community’ with full mutual understandings among its members fosters the close link between craftsmanship and the local social context, which creates the differences and the diversity of different territories. As the vernacular community provides the resources for building activities, consistency of the building craftsmanship in the territory is developed through complicated exchange networks. The vernacular building craftsmanship is deeply embedded in the context of the daily life of the vernacular society, and can realise its own sustainability and vitality only within the sustainability of vernacular society.

Key words: craftsmanship; immateriality; vernacular society; building practice; living heritage
Pan Xi, Yao Yifeng
106 A Historical Presentation in the Present View: Design Process of the Renovation of the Ni House and Its InspirationAbstract: This article introduces Atelier Xuk’s renovation design of the Ni House, which was an old house in a very bad condition before the renovation. It discovers an important conceptual transition during the design process, analyses its relationship with the reality and the historical information, and reveals the design strategies and the methods that deal with the history of the house. The article ends with a reflection on the possibilities of historical presentation in the renovation of the buildings which have historical values but are not supported by the laws related to the registered historic architecture.

Key words: renovation; design process; design method; historical value
Qian Chen, Zhang Ting
120 Accuracy Evaluation of Architectural Heritage Surveying from Photogrammetry Based on Consumer–Level UAV–Born Images: Case Study of the Auspicious Multi-door StupaAbstract: The development of consumer–level unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms opened doors for image–based modelling of architectural heritage. In contrast to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), the dominant 3D reconstruction technology in the field, UAV is more economical, more portable and has wider coverage in measurement, hence is more suitable in remote or high-altitude areas in China. The problem to be analysed is metric accuracy. In the 3D reconstruction of the Auspicious Multi-door Stupa in Tibet, the accuracy is evaluated by average goodness-of-fit with ground control points, closest points calculation with TLS model, and section comparison with TLS model. The conclusion is that 3D model based on images captured by consumer–level UAV is accurate enough (RMSE=1/2500) to cater most applications in architectural heritage survey. Applications of point clouds in the analysis of architectural heritage and the usability of various measurement technologies are addressed based on the case study.

Key words: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); photogrammetry; architectural heritage; 3D reconstruction; point cloud
Sun Zheng, Cao Yongkang
128 Notice of the "Protection Technology for Space Regeneration - International Seminar on Building Heritage Protection Technology 2018"  


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With the coming end of 2017, a total number of eight issues have been published since Heritage Architecture was launched two years ago.
The ‘Special Focus’ of this issue is featured with three articles on various aspects of architectural conservation in Italy. Firstly, it presents the article titled ‘An Italian Contribution to Architectural Restoration’ contributed by Professor Giovanni Carbonara from the Faculty of Architecture, the Sapienza University of Rome (translated by Zhu Guangya and Yang Tianchi). Similar to the crucial impact of diagnosis and therapy on a patient, the standard of architectural conservation fully depends on the expertise about the assessment of values and the status, and on the level of restoration techniques as well. This principle, which is simple to enunciate, is far more complicated to apply, as a small discrepancy might lead to the failure of the whole project. In Italy, restoration is always considered as important as conservation in a strict sense. In this article, the author distinguishes the concept of ‘restoration’ from other terms related to conservation and explains the inevitable conflicts existing in architectural restoration, deepening the integrated and dialectal restoration methodology to a certain degree.
The second article in this column is an introduction to the architectural restoration course in Italy contributed by Professor Riccardo Dalla Negra from the University of Ferrara (translated by Tian Yang and Li Yue). This article highlights the course plan for restoration theory and its applications, thus providing an important reference to the education on architectural conservation in Chinese Universities. The column ends with the article ‘A Review of the World Heritage Sites Inscription Courses of China and Italy’ by Liu Lin’an and Shan Chao from Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Currently, the amount of World Heritage sites in Italy and China ranks respectively as top one and two in the world. This article briefly examines the World Heritage sites in both countries regarding their constitutive categories, geographic locations, and the inscription courses.
In the ‘History and Theory’ column, the article ‘Reconstruction or Re-creation: From the German Pavilion to the Barcelona Pavilion’ contributed by Gao Changjun and Li Xiangning addresses a constantly debated question in the field of architecture and cultural heritage, that is, what is the value and significance of reconstructing a historic monument that no longer exists? Through the comparison between the original German Pavilion and the reconstructed one around half a century later, the article reveals the inheritance of the original designer Mies van der Rohe’s thought and the perception of the re-constructors. In this sense, although the reconstructed Pavilion is not the original one, the spirit of the heritage is revivified to a certain degree; the reconstruction work, thus, added value to the building both nominally and practically. The second article in this column is ‘Rotonde de la Villette: Typological Vagueness and Its Evolution’ by Chen Dijia, which makes a detailed diachronic analysis on Rotonde de la Villette—a masterpiece of the late 18th-century famous French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux—regarding the origins of the building type, the architectural characteristics, and its evolution through history. The article displays a spark of early modernity with the vagueness of the old and the new in the architectural heritage at the late stage of the Enlightenment.
This issue’s Warfield Column theme is the granary, which is the symbol of livelihood and a special building type in rural communities. The author shows us his distinct observation and concise analysis of those granaries with singular shapes and special ways of construction. 
The ‘Project Analysis’ column consists of four articles. Tang Shikuang’s article is a close reading of Bai Miao Tu (Atlas of Miaos) which presents Miao dwellings’ settings of everyday life in the Qing Dynasty as well as its genius loci by using the method of iconography; while Pan Xi and Yao Yifeng’s article ‘The Immaterial Building Craftsmanship of Vernacular Architecture and Its Inheritance’ discusses several issues about the local craftsmanship in the Naxi villages. The two case studies have made new attempts to expand the scope of regional and vernacular architecture research. Qian Chen and Zhang Ting’s article ‘A Historical Presentation in the Present View: Design Process of the Renovation of the Ni House and Its Inspiration’ is a case of the adaptive reuse of old buildings, but the authors’ emphasis on the historical dimension of the project brings the discussion into the context of architectural heritage.
Sun Zheng and Cao Yongkang’s article closes this issue, introducing the accuracy assessment of aerial testing for architectural heritages given by unmanned aerial vehicles, contributing to the technical issue of architectural conservation. (translated by Li Yingchun)