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2018/1 (No.9)

本期《研究聚焦》栏目中,徐怡涛着重探讨了作为建筑遗产保护根基的建筑考古学问题。建筑考古学是建筑史学与考古学两大学科的交叉领域,在此领域,老一代学者杨鸿勋曾致力于考古遗址的建筑复原工作,徐怡涛则用基于考古类型学的研究方法,在相关地区的建筑形制分期研究基础上,通过解析待鉴定建筑的原构和非原构形制,框定其始建年代区间和各次修缮年代区间,揭示建筑的层累关系。这种精确断代方法已经获得了很多成果,在未来也有进
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001 Preservation and Re-creation: A Design Project for the Re-vitalisation of the Arcaded Streets in HaikouAbstract: This article reflects on the history, the design and the implementation of the regeneration project of the arcaded streets in Haikou. It does so from the aspects of historical changes; heritage features; current problems; restoration and renovation; revitalisation and regeneration. Contributing to the current theoretical debate at the international frontiers of the field of architecture, it discusses a variety of concepts such as ‘restore to its recent state’, ‘repair the defect with the new’, ‘renovate to its original state’, and ‘re-create the new with the old’, as well as their application in the project. All of these reveal new design intentions, which aim for the revitalisation of historic streets.

Keywords: Haikou arcaded streets; renovation; restoration; regeneration; historic environment; revitalization
Chang Qing
013 Built Heritage and Development: Heritage Impact Assess-ment of Change in AsiaAbstract: Built heritage faces increasing pressures and threats from development and change in the contemporary world, a situation that frequently results in compromise or loss of historic fabric and its associated values. This paper examines how Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) methodology specifically addresses and mitigates threats to built heritage within an overall sustainable development framework. The methodology will be explained and examples will be given from across Asia of HIA applications to the urban and rural built environment to illustrate how this can be achieved. These case studies reflect a variety of ways in which development and heritage come into conflict and have been selected to show how versatile and adaptable HIA can be as a tool for finding balance and solutions. HIA is an approach rooted in a balanced and sustainable relationship between ‘the needs of the present and future generations and the legacy from the past’ (UNESCO 2011). The paper also illuminates some of the basic assumptions on which HIA functions and some of the contradictions that often arise when the methodology is applied to real world problems.

Keywords: built heritage; Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA); heritage conservation; sustainability development; heritage management
Ayesha Pamela Rogers / Translated by Gu Xinyi / Proofread by Sun Xinfei
Theory and History
022 The Conceptual Definition of Vernacular Built Heritage and Its Conservation Strategy from a Historical Perspec-tiveAbstract: People tend to have a pastoral imagination to the village and rural heritage, but in the conservation of vernacular culture and rural construction, there is a widespread misunderstanding of historic heritage and the embarrassment of the real situation. Rural built heritage is a living heritage that changes with the times. From a historical perspective, this paper identifies the concept of vernacular built heritage, distinguishes its types and constitutions, and puts forward the strategies for conservation with a view to acting as a guide for practice. Based on the differentiation and analysis of the concept of vernacular built heritage, the paper examines and supplements its types and elements, discusses its cultural richness, and investigates its development through history. Vernacular built heritage of different types shaped in different historical periods is clarified, such as the physical remnants of People’s Communes and rural industries, infrastructure and other man-made artefacts, as well as the intangible assets they carry. The paper aims to enrich the type of vernacular built heritage, clarify the subjectivity of conservation and the significance of sustainability. Through the understanding of the value, it reveals the variety and complexity of vernacular built heritage in China.

Keywords: vernacular built heritage; vernacular architecture; modern heritage; subjectivity; value judgment
Tan Gangyi, Jia Yanfei
032 Historic Preservation Education at the University of Penn-sylvaniaAbstract: After more than 30 years of development, the Historic Preservation Program at the University of Pennsylvania (the HSPV at UPenn) has become one of the leading preservation programmes in North America. This article traces the background and development of the HSPV at UPenn before analysing the influence of its founders and acting directors on its professional purpose and curriculum. After a detailed analysis of the four major curriculum systems—history and theory, technology, planning and management, and workshop and thesis—the article summarises the three main characteristics of the programme: a teaching system matched with social demand, technology courses supported by the Architecture Conservation Lab and the practical orientation of teaching methods. The article also considers the usefulness of the programme’s teaching system for the development of Chinese heritage protection education through a comparison of the preservation systems in both countries.

Keywords: University of Pennsylvania; historic preservation; education
Zhang Peng, Wu Shuang
039 On the Scientific Value of Cultural HeritageAbstract: Starting with a discussion of the history and values of cultural heritage, this article gives a simple recap of the evolution of the value of heritage conservation and checks the legal documents related to the protection of heritage at both international and national levels, including some general international documents, documents on historic monuments, and documents from, among others, Britain, France, and Italy. It then traces the history of scientific value, examining how it became one of the basic values for architectural heritage judgment, together with historical value and artistic value. The article continues with a comparison of value assessments at international and national levels to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of heritage discourse in Western and Chinese contexts. The article concludes that, at the international level, the Scientific Revolution and the expansion of scientism to some extent contributed to the recognition of the scientific value of heritage, whereas in China, the Western heritage discourse has had a considerable influence on the determination of heritage values, except for the expansion of scientism. The article also discusses the appropriate attitude toward Western heritage discourse.

Keywords: cultural heritage; scientific value; scientism
Wang Wei, Wu Cong
Heritage Illustration
045 WARFIELD COLUMN IX Streets, Lanes and Alleyways: An Architecture for Pedes-trian Movement James Warfield / Translated by Gu Xinyi / Proofread by Dai Fangrui
Project Analysis
060 Spatial Configuration and Layout of Cave-House Dwell-ings of the Shanxi Construction Type in China Abstract: Cave dwellings and wooden houses are two different structural forms. However, in ancient Shanxi, the two were combined in the form described in this paper as cave-house dwellings. Based on the results of field investigation, this paper determines the distribution of cave-house dwellings in Shanxi: they were most widely used in western and central Shanxi; those regions were followed in frequency by southern and northern Shanxi; the structures are found least in southeastern Shanxi. This study analyses the spatial configuration and layout of cave-house dwellings in terms of three different scales: settlement scale, cluster scale, and single-building scale. It is evident that the spread and distribution of this type of construction was largely dependent on the local conditions. The findings of this paper have certain theoretical significance and application value. The results allow new protection to be afforded to such structures, and an agenda is provided for such protection. The findings shed new light on thinking about wooden structure through the phenomenon of cave-house dwellings.

Keywords: Shanxi construction types; construction; cave-house dwellings; spatial configuration; spatial layout
Wang Jinping, Wang Zhanyong
071 Padley Mill: A Question of Interpretation Peter Blundell Jones / Translated and Postscripted by Ren Xiang / ProofreadAbstract: Located in North Derbyshire in England, Padley Mill was a listed building reuse and regeneration project done by the late British architectural historian and theorist Professor Peter Blundell Jones in the mid-1990s. The paper reveals the piecemeal and laborious design conversion process of a less-valued listed building, which opposes the imposition of a personal style but seeks the essence of historical traces and meaning of a project in the givens of the place through radical design interpretation.

Keywords: Padley Mill; listed building; conversion and reuse; design interpretation
Peter Blundell Jones / Translated and Postscripted by Ren Xiang / Proofread by Wen Jing, Gu Xinyi
083 The Influence of News Media on the Development of an Ur-ban Heritage Conservation System in Guangzhou, China:Taking New Express as an Example He Shan
089 brief   

 

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2018年对于《建筑遗产》学刊是别开生面的更新之年。经过反复讨论,我们对版式和装帧进行了修订优化。封面增加了副刊名“整旧如故 与古为新”八个字,以进一步点明本刊的宗旨,既是对建成遗产的整理和整修,以正本清源还其真,又是对历史和现代关系的协调与协和,使今昔共生以为新。
这一期的开篇,是常青院士的《存旧续新:以创意助推历史环境复兴——海口南洋风骑楼老街区整饬与再生设计思考》。他以同济大学作为海口骑楼老街保护工程总体设计方八载坚持与探索的在地实践,对海口骑楼老街区的前世今生、再生设计及实施过程进行了反思性总结。从与国际前沿对话的视角,探讨了建筑遗产保护中“修旧如旧”“以新补新”“整旧如故”和“与古为新”等概念范畴的意涵,及其在海口骑楼老街区整饬与再生工程中的运用。所有这些探索都蕴含了以实现历史文化街区复兴为目标的创意设计理念。
“没有文化就没有可持续的发展”,“将文化置于发展政策的核心位置是对世界未来的关键性投资”。但发展过程中也容易产生对历史建成环境价值的忽视或践踏,导致历史肌理及其相关价值的妥协或丢失,尤其是在发展变化剧烈的亚洲。如何协调保护与发展之间的矛盾?在2017年“建成遗产:一种城乡演进的文化驱动力”国际学术研讨会上,来自巴基斯坦的艾莎·罗杰斯教授以《建成遗产与发展:应对亚洲变化的遗产影响评估》一文,介绍了遗产影响评估(HIA)这一在保护与发展之间找寻平衡与解决方案的工具,及其在亚洲城乡建成环境中应用的案例。本刊据Built Heritage(2017年第2期)所刊原文,译介给广大中文读者。
作为传统的农业大国,乡村社会和乡土遗产在中国占据着很大的比重和非常重要的位置。在日益城镇化的今天,保护乡土遗产就意味着留住乡愁。但乡土遗产是否就只是人们想象中的阡陌桑田背景下的青砖黛瓦和雕梁画栋?华中科技大学的谭刚毅教授以其多年的关注和思考认为并未如此。他在和贾艳飞老师共同撰写的《历史维度的乡土建成遗产之概念辨析与保护策略》一文中指出,乡土建成遗产是与时俱进的活态遗产。文章从历史的维度梳理了对乡土遗产的认知,辨析其类型和内容要素,从文化的维度论述乡土建成遗产的丰富性和复杂性,以发展的眼光看待不同历史时期的乡土遗产,明晰了乡土遗产的主体性,并在此基础上提出了对乡土建成遗产可持续的保护策略。
寻根乡梓,首先就需要对乡梓之地进行深入的了解与研究。太原理工大学的王金平教授步丈三晋,与王占雍合作完成的《晋系窑房同构建筑的空间形制与布局》一文,从聚落、组群、院落三个层次,对窑房同构这一典型的山西风土建筑营造方式的空间布局与形制进行解读,并论证了其分布规律和传播取决于当地的风土要素,为晋系风土建筑保护提供了更为深厚的基础。
遗产保护并不是一件简简单单就可以说清楚的事情,在保护法规和条例的原则下,每一个个案都需在精研遗产历史、寻觅其过往“图层”的基础上,将逝去的记忆残片和现有的生活联系起来,审慎操作、小心织补、仔细打磨。《帕德垒磨坊:一个关于诠释的论题》是英国著名建筑历史理论家彼得·琼斯的遗作,得其夫人授权,他的学生——目前正在英国谢菲尔德大学任教的任翔完成了全文翻译,本刊以中英对照的形式发表了这篇特别的文章。这个遗产规格较低的磨坊,被琼斯教授买下后,于20世纪90年代中期改造成自己的家庭住宅。原文文稿完成于2016年,对磨坊所在的地方环境与历史,以及改造中结构修复与再生、室内空间重组和室外场所营造进行了细致的描述。其渗透在改造细节中的理念与智慧,蕴含着教授一生的理论凝思与设计考量,是一种基于对既有场地遗存的空间再诠释。其中所展现的对遗产保护与再利用的思考和设计理念,对同类还在或还有潜力继续服务于日常生活的遗产更新与再生具有启发意义。
世界遗产的保护,源于人类保存自身文化和生存环境的意愿,因此强调遗产保护与当地民众和社区的关系,也是世界遗产促进可持续发展的一个重要方面。在当下中国的保护实践中,公众参与尚缺乏法律保障和制度安排,普通民众参与渠道不畅或流于形式,缺乏双向沟通与反馈的互动,而媒体所特有的公信力、公共服务属性和专业能力、政府关系,可以对此做出某种程度的弥补。《新快报》主任记者何姗以其亲身参与、推动广州城市遗产保护的探索,在《新闻媒体对广州城市遗产保护制度建构的影响》一文中,阐述了城市遗产保护政策、制度建设过程中的媒体功能与机制,对现行制度环境下如何使社会多元主体发挥作用,实现有效的公众参与具有较高的实践意义。
遗产保护教育是为未来培养研究者、实践者和更专业的参与者。相对于欧美国家,中国的遗产保护教育起步较晚。“他山之石可以攻玉”,同济大学建筑系副系主任张鹏利用在美国宾夕法尼亚大学做访问学者的便利,在充分调研与考察的基础上,联合正在华盛顿大学读博士的吴爽一起,发表了《美国宾夕法尼亚大学的遗产保护教育》一文。从成立背景和发展历程入手,深入分析了该校建成遗产保护专业创始人和历任专业主任对专业主旨和课程体系的影响,并在对其课程体系进行详细分析的基础上,总结了其与社会需求相匹配的教学体系、实验室支撑的保护技术课程和实践取向的教学方法等三大专业特色。并通过对中美保护教育的比较,探讨了该教学体系对中国遗产保护教育未来发展的启示。
深入理解遗产评定的原则是进行遗产研究与保护的前提。科学价值是文化遗产评定的三大基本价值之一,但对其如何进入遗产语境,并与历史和艺术价值并列,学界却很少有讨论。天津大学的博士研究生王巍与吴葱教授合作,以《论文化遗产的科学价值》一文,通过对国际、国内与保护遗产有关的法律文献的梳理,对这一问题进行了回答。并意以通过对国际、国内这一价值产生背景和发展历程的比较,加深对西方和中国遗产话语的全面理解,探讨对待西方遗产话语应用的态度。
备受读者欢迎的《沃菲尔德风土图记》本期推出的是《街巷:行走在建筑间》。沃菲尔德教授一如既往,以其诗一般的语言描绘富有亲和力的街巷风景线,它们为日常生活和户外活动提供人体尺度的千变万化的空间,承载着联系各家各户、建立社群身份认同、决定邻里范围的社会意义。“走在一条美丽的街巷,就像走入一场梦境,整个世界都在一条普通的街道上;在这里,你可以感受快乐与悲伤;你可以发现邪恶与善良,也可以体验安静与熙攘;还可以欣赏所有喜剧的喜悦和悲剧的凄凉!想要寻找不寻常,请到寻常的街巷,因为那里有整个世界的镜像。”(穆罕默德·穆拉特·伊詹)
最后,感谢相关单位和专家对《建筑遗产》学刊的支持与厚爱,也感谢这两年与我们共同努力的作者和读者。携手,为了我们共同的遗产和未来!
暂未实现,敬请期待
暂未实现,敬请期待